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, Location of the loess belt and the experimental sites in Belgium. 11 1.2 Location map of Velm village and the upstream cultivated dry valleys. Dotted lines represent historical gullies observed in the area

. .. , Description of the Heulen Gracht catchment, p.17

, Dotted lines in (b) represent gullies observed before the construction of the dams in 2001, vol.18

B. Taken-from, 25 2.2 Frequency of muddy oods over a 10 year-period in all municipalities of the study area; data for Wallonia, the Melsterbeek pilot catchment, p.30, 1991.

, Evolution of re brigade interventions in relation to muddy oods in, p.32, 1977.

, Dotted line represents mean annual rainfall erosivity for the period, Annual rainfall erosivity in Gorsem, 1977.

). .. ,

, 33 3.5 Evolution of runo coecient calculated after three methods for a 30 mm-rainfall event on elds planted with two dierent crops, Evolution of the relative agricultural land cover in the Sint-Truiden catchment between 1973 and, p.61, 2000.

, Comparison of inltration rates obtained for monthly soil surface characteristics of elds planted with summer and winter crops based on (i) rainfall simulations and (ii) long-term monitoring of the 6 ha-eld. Error bars represent one standard deviation, p.62

, Spatial distribution of runo generation risk in the Heulen Gracht catchment

, Monthly distribution of the observed rainfall events with > 15mm of cumulative precipitation, and number of recorded runo events in the Walhain and Heulen Gracht catchments, p.65

, Monthly distribution of (a) mean runo volumes (m 3 ) and (b) mean peak discharges (l s ?1 ) measured at the outlet of the 16 ha-catchment. Error bars represent the maximal range of measurements over the 4 year period

, Heulen Gracht, Roujan) and the experimental eld (Corbais) in Belgium and France. The Upper Normandy region and the Blosseville catchment where the STREAM model was initially developed are also located, Location of the sites (Ganspoel, p.75

, Simulated vs. measured runo volumes at the outlet of the Ganspoel catchment (n=16) and at the upstream end of the grassed waterway (GWW) in the Heulen Gracht catchment (n=23), (a) applying the decision rules developed for Normandy; (b) applying the adapted rules for central Belgium

, Simulated vs. measured sediment exports at the outlet of the Ganspoel catchment (n=16) and at the upstream end of the GWW in the Velm catchment (n=11), (a) applying the decision rules developed for Normandy; (b) applying the adapted rules for central Belgium

, Simulated vs. measured runo volumes at the outlet of the Roujan catchment (n=20) applying the decision rules adapted for southern France

, Model spatial predictions for the event of, 2006.

L. Bissonnais, Belgian rainfall data from the Gorsem station of the Royal Meteorological Institute, which is the closest (5 km) to the Heulen Gracht (Velm) catchment. French rainfall data from the Saint-Valéry-en-Caux station, located at 5 km from Blosseville catchment. Soil crusting data available from eld surveys carried out (i) on the 55 elds of Heulen Gracht catchment during the period 2003-2006 for central Belgium and (ii) on 600 elds of Upper Normandy during the period 1992-1998, Mean seasonal rainfall distribution in central Belgium and Upper Normandy and percentage of crusted cultivated area (F12 and F2 crust stages), 2005.

, Simulated vs. measured runo volumes at the outlet of the Ganspoel catchment (n=16) and at the upstream end of the GWW in the Velm catchment (n=23), (a) for winter events (between October-March; n=14); (b) for summer events (between April-September; n=25)

, 1 Seasonal evolution of land cover in the study area, p.108

, Discharge at the catchment outlet in dierent seasons according to land cover in 2003 (see the corresponding land cover maps in Fig. 5.1)

, Land use and land cover (a) before and (b) after land consolidation, p.111

, Simulated hydrographs at the catchment outlet for the situation before and after land consolidation

, Hydrograph at the catchment outlet for the December situation, with and without grassed waterway

, Monthly distribution of observed rainfall events during the period 2003-2007 with > 15 mm of cumulative precipitation, and number of recorded runo events

, Rainfall, inow and outow hydrographs measured during the thunderstorm of, 2007.

, 144 7.2 Cumulative runo inow and outow volume in the upstream detention pond of the Heulen Gracht catchment for the worstcase scenario. Runo volume to store is dened as the largest dierence between the inow and outow curves, p.145, 2007.

, 2 (b) and (3) of Gelinden study site for the worst-case scenario. Runo volume to store is dened as the largest dierence between the inow and outow curves, vol.1

, Proposed methodology to implement measures to control muddy oods from small and medium cultivated catchments. Q max is the runo peak discharge

, ) of farmers' participation to two AEMs (GBS-Grass Buer Strips; cover crops during the intercropping period) in the Walloon loess belt (WLB) and the 233 km 2 -Hillsland Natural Park (HNP), Belgium. Data available from MRW-DGA and GIREA-UCL (2006), Evolution, 1998.

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, Area covered by specic AEMs for erosion mitigation by the end of 2006 in the municipalities of central Belgium (m 2 AEM per ha of cropland)

, Characteristics of the main experimental sites and their use throughout the thesis

, Main literature contributions about 'muddy oods' in the European loess belt

, 23 2.3 Frequency of muddy oods in the municipalities of central Belgium over a 10 year-period as derived from 1) a municipal questionnaire in Wallonia, adapted from Bielders et al. (2003) and Flanders, 1991.

, Disaster Fund database, 1993.

, Belgian Ministry of Home Aairs)

, Mean topographic characteristics of areas producing muddy oods (MF); in total 100 sites where muddy oods occurred (1995-2004) are taken into account, as well as 50 sites where no muddy ood has been reported

, 7 Data on damage costs induced by muddy oods collected in the visited municipalities, Linear logistic regressions relating rainfall and topographic factors to the probability of occurrence of muddy oods (n=150): (a) on hillslopes, vol.39, p.205

, Characteristics of the rainfall-runo events recorded in the three monitored sites

, Classication of soil surface characteristics according to Le Bissonnais, 2005.

, Soil surface combinations selected for rainfall simulation, typical agricultural situations and observation of runo during the simulations

, Means within a column followed by the same letter are not signicantly dierent at ?=0.05 level using the Tukey-Kramer's Honestly Signicant Dierence (HSD) test

, Classication of monthly runo risk for common crops in central Belgium

. .. Catchments, 77 4.2 STREAM decision rules for the contexts of Normandy and central Belgium

. Oost, Characteristics of rainfall events that led to runo in the studied catchments and used for STREAM evaluation. Data for Ganspoel from Van, 2005.

, Runo coecients, runo volumes and sediment exports measured in the catchments (obs.) and modelled (sim.) by STREAM (1) with the default model rules for Normandy, vol.87

C. Runo, Calculation of goodness-of-t indices for the dierent evaluation datasets applying (1) the default rules for Normandy, 2001.

. After-cerdan, Runo sensitivity relative categories for the dierent crop cover classes and survey periods, p.105, 2002.

. .. , Runo coecients and velocities for dierent months and dierent land cover classes in the study area, p.105

. .. , , vol.109, 2003.

, Peak discharge, total runo volume and lag time at the catchment outlet for the dierent situations simulated with the MHM model, vol.110

, Characteristics of the detention ponds of the Heulen Gracht catchment. Location of the ponds is given in section (Fig. 1.3), p.119

, 2 Results of runo measurements in the San Dimas ume and the detention ponds of the Heulen Gracht catchment, p.122

, Summary of t-test results to detect signicant dierences in the ume (upstream of GWW) and at the outlet. SD is the standard deviation

, Muddy ood events requiring re brigade interventions in Velm village between 1977 and 2002 and associated rainfall depth. Return periods after Delbeke (2001)

, Results of soil loss measurements in the San Dimas ume and sediment concentrations in the outow of the dams. N is the number of water samples taken in the ume. Two water samples have systematically been taken behind the dams, p.127

, Runo risk in the Heulen Gracht catchment, p.138

. .. , Characteristics of the dams in the two study sites. Location of the dams is given in section 1.2.2 (Fig. 1.3 and 1.4), p.142

, Impact of conservation tillage (CT) on total runo volume for the worst-case scenario in the Heulen Gracht catchment, p.143

, Evaluation of runo control measures in the two study sites. Characteristics for the three dams of the Heulen Gracht catchment are similar

. .. , Impact of grass buer strips (GBS) on total runo volume for the worst-case scenario in Gelinden catchment, p.145

G. .. Costs,