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Simulation de l'interaction entre les ions du plasma et l'onde à fréquence cyclotronique ionique avec les codes EVE et SPOT

Abstract : Thermonuclear fusion is the great scientific challenge of our century to solve the energy transition from fossil fuels to clean, carbon-free mass energy. Tokamak technology is the most advanced technology to date for the success of this challenge. The importance of the energy transition in this sense is such that a world-wide scientific cooperation was launched in November 1985 under the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) programme based in the south of France near Cadarache, a major French nuclear research centre. Fusion reactions occur naturally in the heart of the sun and therefore require extreme temperature and density conditions. In terms of scale, to ensure the ignition of fusion by magnetic confinement, the plasma must be at a temperature of about ten keV and a density of 10^20 particles/m3. The study of Tokamak's plasma heating systems is largely adequate to meet these extreme conditions. For this purpose three main heating classes exist. The ohmic heating produced by the plasma current generally used to initiate the plasma in Tokamak. Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) heating, which consists in injecting fast neutrals that increase the plasma energy by colliding with each other. Electromagnetic wave heating, which consists of sending a wave into the plasma that will couple with it and includes three categories of heating, an ion heater called ICRH (Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating), an electronic heater called ECRH (Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heating) and an ion and electronic heater called LHCD (Lower Hybrid Current Drive). The work presented in this thesis consisted in improving the modeling of ionic heaters by taking into account the feedback of the ionic distribution of plasma on the propagation and absorption of the ICRF wave (from the English Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency), used in ICRH heating, by creating a code coupling (NEMO/EVE/SPOT/RFOF) forming a workflow available on a European integrated modelling platform called EUITM. Indeed, when the ionic distribution of the plasma presents a significant proportion of fast ions, previous models did not find all the neutron levels, indirect diagnosis of fast ions, produced by fusion reactions. This new workflow was tested using data from JET (Tokamak European based in Culham) using the synergy of NBI and ICRH, a heating scenario producing a large proportion of fast ions in the plasma. The comparison of neutron levels found experimentally and via self-coherent modeling has demonstrated the importance of taking into account the feedback of ion distribution in the absorption of the ICRF wave in the modeling of the synergy of ion heating systems. In addition, our simulations have demonstrated the effectiveness of the synergy effects of NBI and ICRH (compared to their purely additive application) when the deposition of ionic particles produced by NBI is located near the resonance layer of the ICRH. One of the perspectives of this work is the combination of self-coherent modelling of ion heating sources with a equilibrium transport code. This would allow better consideration of the rapid ion dynamics produced by ICRH in studies of central accumulation of heavy impurities.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, September 6, 2022 - 10:28:18 AM
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Julie Joly. Simulation de l'interaction entre les ions du plasma et l'onde à fréquence cyclotronique ionique avec les codes EVE et SPOT. Physique [physics]. AMU Aix Marseille Université, 2019. Français. ⟨tel-02612260⟩

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