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Etude du transport réactif de Sr et Cs dans un sédiment gréso- argileux carbonaté du site de Cadarache

Aubéry Wissocq 1
1 L3MR - Laboratoire de Mesures et Modélisation de la Migration des Radionucléides
SECR - Service d'Etudes du Comportement des Radionucléides : DEN/DPC
Abstract : As part of the environmental monitoring of its installations under nominal operating conditions or in accident situation, CEA must ensure the implementation of operational methods and tools to measure, control and predict the discharge of its installations into the environment, atmosphere, soil and groundwater. This work is part of the implementation of a reactive transport tool, which allows predicting the migration of radionuclides in trace concentration such as 90Sr and 137Cs, the main radionuclides of interest, in soils and rocks. The aim of this thesis is to evaluate the applicability and predictive nature of a coupled chemistry-transport model in the case of migration of Cs and Sr in a natural sediment, representative of the aquifer underlying the nuclear site of Cadarache. The retention model used is based on the Multi-Site Ion Exchange Theory, integrated in PhreeqC coupled with HYDRUS 1D (HP1) or Crunchflow. The characterization of the physico-chemical properties of the sediment studied and the identification of the reactive minerals allow to develop a database of retention of Sr2+, Cs+ and Ca2+ (major cation of the medium) on the clay minerals mostly present, illite and smectite. The construction of this database was based on a critical review of the data in the literature, supplemented by the acquisition of missing data. From this database and assuming the additivity of the retention properties of pure minerals in a material considered as a mixture of pure minerals, it was possible to verify the applicability of the retention model in the case of the adsorption of Sr2+ and Cs+ on the sediment. Finally, this retention model could be coupled to a transport model and applied to the case of the migration of Sr and Cs in sediment columns. These experiments were carried out on two types of column, at the centimeter scale on standard columns and at a decimetric scale on an experimental device equipped with a X generator recording continuously the physicochemical parameters within the column. Simulations of the Sr reactive transport experiments by the multi-sites ion exchange model coupled with the advection-dispersion equation were able to adequately reproduce the Sr breakthrough curves without any parameter adjustments. The dispersivity coefficients of each column were determined in non-reactive transport experiments using inert tracers (2H, Cl- and I-). Moreover, the Cs breakthrough curves seem more difficult to reproduce, which could be due to the uncertainties still existing on the retention parameters related to this element or a kinetic effect. The good agreement between the results of the reactive Sr transport experiments in a column at two different scales and the simulations showed that the reactive transport model implemented allows reproducing the behavior of Sr in the Cadarache sediment without parameter adjustment by considering the chemical retention by an ion exchange process on the clay minerals of the system. This first step, essential to the evaluation of the model confirms the predictive nature of this model, insofar as physicochemical conditions are well constrained.
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Aubéry Wissocq. Etude du transport réactif de Sr et Cs dans un sédiment gréso- argileux carbonaté du site de Cadarache. Chimie. Université Paris-Saclay, Université d'Evry Val-d'Essonne, 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLE027⟩. ⟨tel-02389783⟩

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