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Étude des écoulements à l'interface joint-rugosité pour des applications de haute étanchéité

Abstract : Some industrial applications require exceptional sealing levels to maintain ultra-high vacuumconditions or for radiological safety concerns for example. Such high performance static sealingconditions on mechanical assemblies are reached using entirely metallic gaskets. The resultingleak-rate is only due to the persistence of an aperture field at the seal-flange interface,consequence of a non-ideal contact between the two rough surfaces. This aperture field can beviewed as a rough and heterogeneous fracture, of multi-scale nature, and can be obtained by aprior contact mechanics computation. In this work, we are interested on the rarefied flow of a gasin this fracture, drawing our attention to the slip regime. For such moderately rarefied regime, theflow is described by the slightly compressible Reynolds equation with a first-order slip-flowcorrection at the walls, which we develop. Using the method of volume averaging, an upscalingprocedure is performed to derive the macroscopic flow model at the scale of a representativeelement, and where the mass flow rate is related to the pressure gradient by the transmissivitytensor. This latter is characteristic of the representative fracture element and is obtained by solvingan auxiliary closure problem which depends on the micro-structure as well as the representativemean free path on the element. To compute the flow in the whole fracture, heterogeneous at thisscale, it is subdivided in tiles on which a transmissivity tensor is locally computed by theaforementioned method. Then, the flow problem in this tensor field is solved using a boundaryelement method, leading to the apparent slip-corrected transmissivity of the entire aperture field.This two-scale approach is a conception tool which reduces the overall complexity with respect toa direct numerical simulation, allowing a more efficient analysis of the behavior of a sealingassembly. To validate the use of slip models at the macroscopic level and to eliminate theuncertainties of the contact mechanics computation, nanofluidic chips composed ofheterogeneous network of straight channels are fabricated using a grayscale photolithographytechnique. Experimental measurements of the leak-rate are performed on these idealizedgeometries that mimic a seal assembly. They are realized by applying a strong helium pressuredifference on the chip using a mass spectrometer to measure the leak, which produces a nearvacuum condition at the outlet. Depending of the chip, the rarefaction regime ranges from slip tofree-molecular. The measured leak-rate is greater than predicted by the first order model, thoughbeing of the same order of magnitude whatever the regime.
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Submitted on : Friday, September 6, 2019 - 9:19:54 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-02280995, version 1



Tony Zaouter. Étude des écoulements à l'interface joint-rugosité pour des applications de haute étanchéité. Mécanique des fluides [physics.class-ph]. Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018INPT0116⟩. ⟨tel-02280995⟩



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