Learning representations from functional MRI data

Arthur Mensch 1
1 PARIETAL - Modelling brain structure, function and variability based on high-field MRI data
NEUROSPIN - Service NEUROSPIN, Inria Saclay - Ile de France
Abstract : Thanks to the advent of functional brain-imaging technologies, cognitive neuroscience is accumulating maps of neural activity responses to specific tasks or stimuli, or of spontaneous activity. In this work, we consider data from functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), that we study in a machine learning setting: we learn a model of brain activity that should generalize on unseen data. After reviewing the standard fMRI data analysis techniques, we propose new methods and models to benefit from the recently released large fMRI data repositories. Our goal is to learn richer representations of brain activity. We first focus on unsupervised analysis of terabyte-scale fMRI data acquired on subjects at rest (resting-state fMRI). We perform this analysis using matrix factorization. We present new methods for running sparse matrix factorization/dictionary learning on hundreds of fMRI records in reasonable time. Our leading approach relies on introducing randomness in stochastic optimization loops and provides speed-up of an order of magnitude on a variety of settings and datasets. We provide an extended empirical validation of our stochastic subsampling approach, for datasets from fMRI, hyperspectral imaging and collaborative filtering. We derive convergence properties for our algorithm, in a theoretical analysis that reaches beyond the matrix factorization problem. We then turn to work with fMRI data acquired on subject undergoing behavioral protocols (task fMRI). We investigate how to aggregate data from many source studies, acquired with many different protocols, in order to learn more accurate and interpretable decoding models, that predicts stimuli or tasks from brain maps. Our multi-study shared-layer model learns to reduce the dimensionality of input brain images, simultaneously to learning to decode these images from their reduced representation. This fosters transfer learning in between studies, as we learn the undocumented cognitive common aspects that the many fMRI studies share. As a consequence, our multi-study model performs better than single-study decoding. Our approach identifies universally relevant representation of brain activity, supported by a few task-optimized networks learned during model fitting. Finally, on a related topic, we show how to use dynamic programming within end-to-end trained deep networks, with applications in natural language processing.
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Arthur Mensch. Learning representations from functional MRI data. Machine Learning [stat.ML]. Université Paris-Saclay, 2018. English. ⟨NNT : 2018SACLS300⟩. ⟨tel-01891633⟩

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