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Caractérisation spatio-temporelle d’impulsions laser de haute puissance

Abstract : High power laser make it possible to reach very high intensities (up to 10²²W.cm⁻²). In order to get to this level of intensity, a moderate quantity of energy (on the order of the Joule) is concentrated in a very short time (on the order of tens of femtoseconds) onto a small surface (on the order of 1 μm²). These beams are therefore ultra-short and focused with a high aperture optic. These features mean that their diameter prior to focus is large and their spectral width is big. As a result, these beams are subject to spatio-spectral distorsions (of spatio-temporal couplings). After focus, these distorsions induce a dramatic reduction of the peak intensity. This situation is all the more true when the laser is more intense and its diameter and spectral width are therefore bigger. Despite their detrimental effects, spatio-temporal couplings can be of great interest when controlled. One can indeed introduce weak spatio-temporal couplings for experimental purposes. In the 1990s and 2000s, a big effort was put in order to characterize dans optimize the temporal profile of femtosecond lasers. Meanwhile, adaptative optics solutions were developed to control the spatial profil of ultra intense laser beams and provide the best focal spot achievable. By nature, this approach is blind to spatio-temporal couplings. Measuring these distorsions requires a spatio-temporal characterization. Before the start of this Phd thesis, spatio-temporal characterization methods already existed. Although none of these devices were ever adapted to the measurement of ultra-intense laser beams. During this Phd Thesis, we developped a new spatio-temporal characterization technique which we called TERMITES. This technique is based on a self-referenced Fourier transform spectroscopy scheme. TERMITES made it possible for us to perform the first total spatio-temporal characterization of a 100 TW laser (UHI-100 at CEA Saclay, France). The detection of spatio-temporal distorsions with the help of these measurements confirmed the need for a generalization of spatio-temporal characterization of ultra-high power lasers.
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Submitted on : Thursday, May 18, 2017 - 5:15:11 PM
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  • HAL Id : tel-01487697, version 2

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Gustave Pariente. Caractérisation spatio-temporelle d’impulsions laser de haute puissance. Optique [physics.optics]. Université Paris Saclay (COmUE), 2017. Français. ⟨NNT : 2017SACLS003⟩. ⟨tel-01487697v2⟩

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