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Vegetal-extracted polyphenols as a natural hard carbon anode source for Na-ion batteries

Abstract : Hard carbons are promising anode materials for Na-ion batteries and can be produced using a wide variety of precursors either from synthetic or natural sources. This work focuses on the development of hard carbons using natural polyphenols from different vegetal extracts. Herein, five natural tannin based-polyphenols (catechu, chestnut, myrobalan and two mimosa extracts) were selected to synthesize hard carbons after a single pyrolysis process at 1500°C. The morphology, texture, structure and surface chemistry of these materials were characterized. Precursors lead to a high carbon yield between 35-44 % and the obtained hard carbons possess disordered structure. The presence of a low volume of meso-, micro- and ultramicro-pores was observed by N2 and CO2 physisorption assays while the specific surface areas found were very low (N2-SSA < 7 m2·g-1 and CO2-SSA < 24 m2·g-1). Those materials exhibit a typical hard carbon structure with similar graphite interlayer space values (d002) and a small amount of metallic impurities (< 6 wt.%). Electrochemical performance evinced a high Coulombic efficiency (iCE > 84%) reaching 100 % after few cycles, and good cycling stability. Catechu and chestnut derived hard carbons exhibit reversible capacities around 280 mAh·g-1, when cycled at C/10 (C=372 mA·g-1); whereas the other hard carbons deliver 304 mAh·g-1. This is due to the presence of impurities, graphitized domains and slightly lower d002 values. The electrochemical behavior of these two materials differs considerably from myrobalan and mimosa derived hard carbons when a C current density is applied. Best performance was achieved for materials exhibiting low amount of impurities, more disordered structure and low specific surface area (i.e. myrobalan derived hard carbon).
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Submitted on : Monday, July 4, 2022 - 2:48:55 PM
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Adrian Beda, Angel Escamilla Pérez, Loic Simonin, Camelia Matei Ghimbeu. Vegetal-extracted polyphenols as a natural hard carbon anode source for Na-ion batteries. ACS Applied Energy Materials, ACS, 2022, 5 (4), pp.4774-4787. ⟨10.1021/acsaem.2c00215⟩. ⟨cea-03713194⟩



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