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Experimental analysis of short-circuit scenarios applied to silicon-graphite/nickel-rich lithium-ion batteries

Abstract : Short-circuit incidents pose a severe safety threat to lithium-ion batteries during lifetime. Understanding the underlying electrochemical behavior can help to mitigate safety risks. The electrochemically-caused rate-limiting behavior is analyzed using a quasi-isothermal test-bench, where external and local short-circuit conditions are applied to single-layered pouch cells (< 50 mAh). The cell voltage, the heat generation rate, and either the short-circuit current or a local electrical potential are measured and used to characterize the short-circuit intensity. The results of 35 custom-built silicongraphite SiC/NCA and SiC/NMC-811 cells with 2.5 wt.-% silicon are benchmarked to previously studied graphite G/NMC-111 cells. An additional current plateau appears for the silicon-graphite/nickel-rich cells, which is ascribed to the anode-limited electrode balancing. At a maximum, 29% of the total dissipated heat is caused during over-discharge. The effect of cyclic aging on the impact of the short-circuit behavior is investigated with aged single-layered pouch cells (SoH < 80%), which revealed nearly the same levels of over-discharge as non-aged cells. A lithium reference electrode is used to visualize polarization effects in the anode during ESCs and to evaluate the onset of copper dissolution (> 3.2 V vs. Li/Li$^+$), which could be estimated up to 20% of the negative current collector mass.
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Submitted on : Thursday, March 17, 2022 - 5:00:04 PM
Last modification on : Saturday, March 19, 2022 - 3:39:52 AM


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Johannes Sturm, S. Friedrich, Sylvie Genies, Didier Buzon, G. Rahn-Koltermann, et al.. Experimental analysis of short-circuit scenarios applied to silicon-graphite/nickel-rich lithium-ion batteries. Journal of The Electrochemical Society, Electrochemical Society, 2022, 169 (2), pp.020569. ⟨10.1149/1945-7111/ac51f3⟩. ⟨cea-03612369⟩



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