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Planck 2018 results: IV. Diffuse component separation

Yashar Akrami 1 M. Ashdown J. Aumont C. Baccigalupi M. Ballardini A. J. Banday 2 R. B. Barreiro N. Bartolo S. Basak K. Benabed 3 M. Bersanelli 4 P. Bielewicz J. R. Bond 5 J. Borrill 6 F. R. Bouchet 7 F. Boulanger M. Bucher 8 C. Burigana E. Calabrese J.-F. Cardoso 9 J. Carron 10 B. Casaponsa A. Challinor L. P. L. Colombo C. Combet 11 B. P. Crill F. Cuttaia P. de Bernardis 12 A. de Rosa G. de Zotti J. Delabrouille 8 J.-M. Delouis 3 E. Di Valentino C. Dickinson J. M. Diego S. Donzelli O. Doré 13 A. Ducout X. Dupac G. Efstathiou F. Elsner 3 T. A. Ensslin H. K. Eriksen * E. Falgarone 14, 1 R. Fernandez-Cobos F. Finelli F. Forastieri M. Frailis A. A. Fraisse E. Franceschi A. Frolov 15 S. Galeotta S. Galli K. Ganga 8 R. T. Génova-Santos M. Gerbino T. Ghosh 16 J. González-Nuevo K. M. Górski 13 A. Gruppuso J. E. Gudmundsson W. Handley F. K. Hansen G. Helou D. Herranz S. R. Hildebrandt Z. Huang 17 A. H. Jaffe A. Karakci E. Keihänen R. Keskitalo K. Kiiveri J. Kim T. S. Kisner 6 N. Krachmalnicoff M. Kunz H. Kurki-Suonio G. Lagache 16 J.-M. Lamarre 14 A. Lasenby M. Lattanzi 18 C. R. Lawrence M. Le Jeune 8 F. Levrier 14 M. Liguori P. B. Lilje V. Lindholm M. López-Caniego P. M. Lubin Y.-Z. Ma J. F. Macías-Pérez 11 G. Maggio D. Maino N. Mandolesi A. Mangilli 2 A. Marcos-Caballero M. Maris P. G. Martin E. Martínez-González S. Matarrese 19 N. Mauri J. D. Mcewen P. R. Meinhold A. Melchiorri 20 A. Mennella M. Migliaccio M.-A. Miville-Deschênes 21, 22 D. Molinari A. Moneti 3 L. Montier 2 G. Morgante P. Natoli F. Oppizzi L. Pagano 16 D. Paoletti B. Partridge M. Peel V. Pettorino 22 F. Piacentini G. Polenta J.-L. Puget 16 J. P. Rachen M. Reinecke M. Remazeilles 23 A. Renzi G. Rocha 13 G. Roudier 14, 8 J. A. Rubiño-Martín B. Ruiz-Granados L. Salvati 16 M. Sandri 24 M. Savelainen D. Scott 25 D. S. Seljebotn C. Sirignano L. D. Spencer A.-S. Suur-Uski J. A. Tauber D. Tavagnacco M. Tenti H. Thommesen L. Toffolatti M. Tomasi 26 T. Trombetti J. Valiviita B. van Tent 27 P. Vielva Francesca Villa N. Vittorio B. D. Wandelt 3 I. K. Wehus A. Zacchei A. Zonca 
* Corresponding author
1 Astrophysique
LPENS - Laboratoire de physique de l'ENS - ENS Paris
Abstract : We present full-sky maps of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and polarized synchrotron and thermal dust emission, derived from the third set of $Planck$ frequency maps. These products have significantly lower contamination from instrumental systematic effects than previous versions. The methodologies used to derive these maps follow closely those described in earlier papers, adopting four methods (Commander, NILC, SEVEM, and SMICA) to extract the CMB component, as well as three methods (Commander, GNILC, and SMICA) to extract astrophysical components. Our revised CMB temperature maps agree with corresponding products in the $Planck$ 2015 delivery, whereas the polarization maps exhibit significantly lower large-scale power, reflecting the improved data processing described in companion papers; however, the noise properties of the resulting data products are complicated, and the best available end-to-end simulations exhibit relative biases with respect to the data at the few percent level. Using these maps, we are for the first time able to fit the spectral index of thermal dust independently over 3° regions. We derive a conservative estimate of the mean spectral index of polarized thermal dust emission of $\beta_d$ = 1.55  ±  0.05, where the uncertainty marginalizes both over all known systematic uncertainties and different estimation techniques. For polarized synchrotron emission, we find a mean spectral index of $\beta_s$ = −3.1  ±  0.1, consistent with previously reported measurements. We note that the current data processing does not allow for construction of unbiased single-bolometer maps, and this limits our ability to extract CO emission and correlated components. The foreground results for intensity derived in this paper therefore do not supersede corresponding $Planck$ 2015 products. For polarization the new results supersede the corresponding 2015 products in all respects.
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Yashar Akrami, M. Ashdown, J. Aumont, C. Baccigalupi, M. Ballardini, et al.. Planck 2018 results: IV. Diffuse component separation. Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A, 2020, 641, pp.A4. ⟨10.1051/0004-6361/201833881⟩. ⟨cea-02936942⟩



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