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Concavity for nuclear bindings, thermodynamical functions and density functionals

Abstract : Sequences of experimental ground-state energies for both odd and even A are mapped onto concave patterns cured from convexities due to pair-ing and/or shell effects. The same patterns, completed by a list of exci-tation energies, give numerical estimates of the grand potential $\Omega$($\beta$,$\mu$) for a mixture of nuclei at low or moderate temperatures $T$ = $\beta ^{−1}$ and at many chemical potentials $\mu$. The average nucleon number $\langle A \rangle$ ($\beta$, $\mu$) then becomes a continuous variable, allowing extrapolations towards nuclear masses closer to drip lines. We study the possible concavity of several thermodynamical functions, such as the free energy and the average energy , as functions of $\langle A \rangle$. Concavity, which always occurs for the free energy and is usually present for the average energy, allows easy interpolations and extrapolations providing upper and lower bounds, respectively, to binding energies. Such bounds define an error bar for the prediction of binding energies. Finally we show how concavity and universality are related in the theory of the nuclear density functional.
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B.R. Barrett, B.G. Giraud, B.K. Jennings, N.P. Toberg. Concavity for nuclear bindings, thermodynamical functions and density functionals. Nuclear Physics A, Elsevier, 2009, 828 (3-4), pp.267-282. ⟨10.1016/j.nuclphysa.2009.07.002⟩. ⟨cea-02887638⟩

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