# Comparing strategies for improving efficiencies in vacuum processed Cu$_2$ZnSnSe$_4$ solar cells

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Abstract : In this study, we detail a Cu$_2$ZnSnSe$_4$ based solar cell fabrication process based on the selenization of metallic precursor stacks with elemental Se. 9.4% efficient devices without antireflection coating have been obtained. First, reproducibility issues of the process are carefully shown and discussed. It is demonstrated that device performances are strongly impacted by the precise control of the precursor composition. Then, starting from this robust process, a review of existing strategies to improve kesterite efficiencies is conducted. A significant increase in efficiency (+1.4% absolute efficiency and +50 mV V$_{OC}$) is obtained with absorber surface treatment and post-annealing, while no effect of Ge incorporation in the precursor stack is observed. This contradictory result to most of the recent publications raises the question of the universality of this strategy to improve kesterite solar cell performance. Finding a universal activation step to boost kesterite efficiencies and bring it to the market remains a crucial need for the community
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Journal articles
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Cited literature [24 references]

https://hal-cea.archives-ouvertes.fr/cea-02474077
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Louis Grenet, Abdul Aziz Suzon, Fabrice Emieux, Frédéric Roux. Comparing strategies for improving efficiencies in vacuum processed Cu$_2$ZnSnSe$_4$ solar cells. Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy, AIP Publishing, 2018, 10, pp.043503. ⟨10.1063/1.5034526⟩. ⟨cea-02474077⟩

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