, Measurement locations are indicated by black dots. The most important regional orographic features and their heights MSL are also indicated. The terrain elevation scale applies on all frames

, Precipitation was measured with a rain gauge at VER, radiation close to M30 at 1.2 m height, other measurement locations and heights are indicated in the corresponding boxes. The gray shaded areas indicate nighttime periods. In a) the IOPs are indicated by their number, the orange dashed lines designating the start and end time of each IOP. In b) on the left axis CDV and DDV indicate the down-valley wind direction for CV and DV, respectively. All quantities shown are 10 min averages

, Time series measured at M30 in the Cadarache Valley of a): medians of the temperature at 2 and 30 m height; b), c) and d): histograms of sensible heat flux, stability index and friction velocity at 30 m, respectively. Bold lines in b), c) and d) represent median values. The full campaign period has been used, that is from 13, 2012.

, 2D histograms observed by the Sodar at VER (Fig. 1) for the period of 13, 2012.

, and adapted to the CV (a and c) and DV (b and d) orientations, and by means of measurements within the CV (e) and DV (f) as classified by two hour bins in UTC. On the axis the appropriate up-valley (CUV and DUV) and down-valley (CDV and DDV) wind directions are indicated. Data is between 13, Inside-valley wind direction against above-valley wind direction according to Whiteman and Doran, 1993.

, ) with the mixing ratio q (dashed lines) and potential temperature ? (solid lines) in the left panel and wind speed (solid lines) and wind direction (crosses) in the right panel. The launch times are indicated in the legend on the left panel. The down-valley wind direction for Durance and Cadarache valleys are, 6-hourly radiosoundings launched near the M30-site during IOP 21, 2013.

, averaged over 6 m, as measured during IOP 21 (27 to 28 February 2013) for potential temperature (left) and wind speed and direction (lines and crosses, respectively, right). The Durance and Cadarache Valley's down-valley wind directions are indicated on the wind direction axis. The times (UTC) are

, Sunset-referenced time series of wind direction histograms at several heights, the 110 m height is taken at GBA, the others at M30 (see Fig. 1 for the location), 2012.

, Same as Fig. 8d but sunrise referenced

, Histogram of the sunset-related onset time of the DDV wind observed at 225 m a.g.l. for the period of 13, 2012.

, Sunset-referenced distribution and median (black lines) of the turbulence parameter ?w at the 175-m level from the SODAR for a) the full KASCADE period, 2012.

, Wind roses (in m s -1 ) at several heights constructed from TB, M30 and GBA measurements for all nighttime periods of tethersonde scans during all IOPs

, Same as Fig. 4 but for tethersonde measurements near the M30-site during IOP days only (see Table 1 for dates) and with the indication of the down-valley wind directions in the Cadarache Valley (CDV) and Durance Valley (DDV)

, Conceptual drawing of the diurnal wind pattern in and above the Cadarache valley during typical KASCADE conditions (clear sky and weak synoptic forcing)