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A. , At 72 hours post-CBL siRNA transfection MDMs were infected with HIV-1 AD8 (MOI of 1) for 6 hours, cell lysates were assayed for protein expression by western blot. For short hairpin RNA (shRNA) lentiviral particles transduction, the pLKO.1 shRNA expression lentiviral vector coding for each targeted gene was purchased from Thermo Scientific. The shRNAs used in knockdown experiments had the following sequences for P2Y2 (shRNA1, 5 0 -ATGTTCCACCTGGCTGTGTCTGATGCACT-3 0 ), for NLRP3 (shRNA1, 5 0 -TTCTTGAAGTGTTTCTAACGC-3 0 , shRNA2, 5 0 -AAACAGTAGAACAATTCCAGC-3 0 ) and pLKO.1 empty vector control. Lentiviral vector particles were generated by cotransfection of three plasmids coding for the gag-pol HIV-1 genes (pCMV-HIV-1-GAG-POL), for the vector genome carrying shRNA of interest (pLKO.1 shRNA) and for the plasmid coding for an envelope of VSVG (pMDG-VSV-G). Co-transfection was performed in HEK293T cells using Fugene transfection reagent (Promega) according to the manufacturer's protocol. Two days after transfection, supernatants were filtered using 0.45-mm cellulose acetate filters, HEK293T cells are siGenome (Dharmacon) smart pool selected composed of a pool of four siRNAs having the following sequences for CBL, 2013.

C. Mdms and . Saïdi, Viral stocks were standardized by quantification of CAp24 antigen in cell culture supernatants with an enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (Perkin Elmer) and infection of TZM-bl cells (bearing the b-galactosidase gene under the control of HIV-1 LTR) with serial dilutions of the viral stocks followed by cell fixation and X-Gal staining. The multiplicity of infection (MOI) was determined at 48 hours of infection of TZM-bl based on the number of the positive X-Gal cells. Viral infections After 3 days of infection with HIV-1 NDK (MOI of 1), PHA/IL-2-stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes were cocultured with uninfected lymphoblasts or alone for 48 hours and analyzed by immunofluorescence for synapse formation. MDMs were infected with HIV-1 BaL (with a MOI of 2) during 3 days for the analysis by Proximity Ligation Assay (PLA) (following manufacturer's instructions) and the intracellular CAp24 by FACS, as previously described (Sé ror et al., 2011), for MSU (100 mM) and LPS (10 ng/ml) treated cells. MDMs or PMA-THP1 macrophages infected with HIV-1 AD8 were pre-treated 18 hours with MSU (100 mM) and AR-C118925XX (100 mM) and infected during six hours with HIV-1 AD8 (MOI of 1) in the presence of the indicated drugs. The quantification of the LDH release in the cell supernatants of MSU-treated MDM was performed using the commercially available ELISA kits for LDH (Roche) according to the manufacturers' instructions at 24 hours after infection. THP1 cells were also infected with HIV-1 NL4-3 (MOI of 1) or HIV-1 NL4-3DEnv (MOI of 1) during 6 hours and analyzed for related signaling pathways by western blot, Cells or THP1 cells (1x10 stocks of wild-type HIV-1 NL4-3 or HIV-1 AD8 , HEK293T cells (2x10 6 ) were transfected with 20 mg of the corresponding proviral DNA (pHIV-1 NL4-3 or pHIV-1 AD8 ) and for Env-deleted VSV-G pseudotyped NL4-3 viruses (pHIV-1 NL4-3DEnv ), HEK293T cells (2x10 6 ) cells were transfected with 4 mg of VSV-G expression vector, 2004.

, MOI of 1) at 48 hours after shRNA transduction for 6 hours and after washings were suspended in equal medium volumes. Cell supernatants were then harvested at 6 and 12 days after infection for quantification of HIV-1 CAp24 contents. For immunoprecipitation assays, THP1 cells were treated 8 hours with PP1 (20 mM), PP2 (20 mM) or 2 hours of pretreatment with UTP (100 mM) before infection. Then, THP1 cells were infected during 6 hours with HIV-1 NL4-3 (MOI of 1) in the presence of the indicated drugs. To remove the membrane bound non-internalized HIV-1 particles before analysis of intracellular CAp24 by western blot, cells were treated with trypsin at 37 C for 20 minutes followed by two extensive washings. Target cell infectivity was evaluated using the enhanced b-galactosidase assay kit (Roche), For THP1 monocytes or CEM-SS T cells silenced for NLRP3, through the transduction of lentiviral vectors expressing shRNA1 and shRNA2 against NLRP3 gene, and control cells were infected with HIV-1 NL4-3 or HIV-1 AD8

, After paraffin removal, slides were subjected to antigen retrieval by microwave boiling in 1 mmol/l EDTA pH 9.0. Cell slides were then incubated during overnight for immunofluorescence with anti-P2Y2 (Alomone), anti-NLRP3 (Adipogen), anti-CD163 (BD laboratories) or anti-gp120 (2G12) (AIDS Research and Reference Reagent Program, Division of AIDS, NIAID) or for immunochemistry with anti-NLRP3 (Sigma) after permeabilization in 0.3% Triton for 5 minutes and saturation in PBS-FBS 20% for 1 hour. Then, cells were incubated with appropriate secondary antibodies conjugated to Alexa Fluor 488, 546 or 647 fluorochromes (Life technologies) at room temperature during 1 hour and 30 minutes. Actin was stained with Alexa Fluor 594 Phalloidin for 30 minutes at room temperature, PBS or 0.1% Triton for MDMs and PBLs, and incubated with PBS-FBS 20% for 1 hour, vol.33342

, Adipogen) and anti P2Y2 (Alomone) as primary antibodies. Images of cells were acquired by laser-scanning fluorescent confocal microscopy Leica SPE with LAS-X software (Leica) with 8 bits configuration and using a 63X oil objective (1.4 numerical aperture). Leica Microsystem immersion oil (11513859) was used and imaging was performed at room temperature. Confocal images were analyzed with ImageJ and exported as TIFs for figures illustration. For 3D immunofluorescence intensity image construction, Proximity Ligation Assay (DUOLINKâ, Sigma) was performed according to the manufacturer's instructions using anti-NLRP3

, Antibody anti-NLRP3 was from Adipogen (Cryo-2), anti-P2Y2 was from Alomone, anti-ubiquitin (UB) (P4D1) was from Santa-Cruz, and anti-Flag was from Sigma. For immunoprecipitations, cell pellets were lysed at indicated times after infection or 24 hours after transfection in CHAPS buffer (50 mM Tris-HCl (pH = 7.5), 0.50 M NaCl and 0.1% CHAPS) containing protease and phosphatase inhibitors. Anti-P2Y2 (Alomone) antibodies were incubated overnight at 4 C with 500 mg cell lysates. The complexes were precipitated by incubation with Protein G Sepharose 4 Fast Flow (GE Healthcare) for 4 hours. For relative expression quantification analyzed protein bands were quantified by ImageJ software and normalized on the corresponding endogenous expression of GAPDH or ACTIN proteins, Western blots and immunoprecipitations Cells were washed twice with PBS and lysed in appropriated buffer (250 mM NaCl, 0.1% NP-40, 5 mM EDTA, 10 mM Na3VO4, 10 mM NaF, 5 mM DTT, 3 mM Na4P2O7, 1 mM EGTA, 10 mM Glycerol phosphate, 10 mM Tris-Hcl (pH = 7.5) and the protease and phosphatase inhibitors (Roche)). 10-40 mg of protein extracts were run on 4%-12% or 10% SDS-PAGE and transferred at 4 C onto a nitrocellulose membrane (0.2 Micron), vol.1, p.206

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