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Fossil group origins: X. Velocity segregation in fossil systems

Abstract : Aims. We aim to study how the velocity segregation and the radial profile of the velocity dispersion depend on the prominence of the brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs).Methods. We divided a sample of 102 clusters and groups of galaxies into four bins of magnitude gap between the two brightest cluster members. We then computed the velocity segregation in bins of absolute and relative magnitude. Moreover, for each bin of magnitude gap we computed the radial profile of the velocity dispersion.Results. When using absolute magnitudes, the segregation in velocity is limited to the two brightest bins and no significant difference is found for different magnitude gaps. However, when we use relative magnitudes, a trend appears in the brightest bin: the larger the magnitude gap, the larger the velocity segregation. We also show that this trend is mainly due to the presence, in the brightest bin, of satellite galaxies in systems with small magnitude gaps: in fact, if we study central galaxies and satellites separately, this trend is mitigated and central galaxies are more segregated than satellites for any magnitude gap. A similar result is found in the radial velocity dispersion profiles: a trend is visible in central regions (where the BCGs dominate) but, if we analyse the profile using satellites alone, the trend disappears. In the latter case, the shape of the velocity dispersion profile in the centre of the systems with different magnitude gaps shows three types of behaviour: systems with the smallest magnitude gaps have an almost flat profile from the centre to the external regions; systems with the largest magnitude gaps show a monothonical growth from the low values of the central part to the flat ones in the external regions; and finally, systems with 1.0 <  Δm12 ≤ 1.5 show a profile that peaks in the centre and then decreases towards the external regions.Conclusions. We suggest that two mechanisms could be responsible for the observed differences in the velocity segregation of the BCGs: an earlier formation of systems with a larger magnitude gap or a more centrally concentrated halo. However, the radial profiles of the velocity dispersion confirm that central galaxies are more relaxed, but that the satellite galaxies do not seem to be affected by the magnitude gap.
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S. Zarattini, J. A. L. Aguerri, A. Biviano, M. Girardi, E. M. Corsini, et al.. Fossil group origins: X. Velocity segregation in fossil systems. Astronomy and Astrophysics - A&A, EDP Sciences, 2019, 631, pp.A16. ⟨10.1051/0004-6361/201834689⟩. ⟨cea-02314378⟩

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