J. Hardy and D. J. Selkoe, The amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease: progress and problems on the road to therapeutics, Science, vol.297, pp.353-356, 2002.

J. J. Palop and L. Mucke, Amyloid-beta-induced neuronal dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease: from synapses toward neural networks, Nat Neurosci, vol.13, pp.812-818, 2010.

H. Akiyama, S. Barger, S. Barnum, B. Bradt, J. Bauer et al., Inflammation and Alzheimer's disease, Neurobiol Aging, vol.21, pp.383-421, 2000.

G. W. Kreutzberg, Microglia: a sensor for pathological events in the CNS, Trends Neurosci, vol.19, pp.312-318, 1996.

D. Morgan, M. N. Gordon, J. Tan, D. Wilcock, and A. M. Rojiani, Dynamic complexity of the microglial activation response in transgenic models of amyloid deposition: implications for Alzheimer therapeutics, J Neuropathol Exp Neurol, vol.64, pp.743-753, 2005.

G. J. Guillemin and B. J. Brew, Microglia, macrophages, perivascular macrophages, and pericytes: a review of function and identification, J Leukoc Biol, vol.75, pp.388-397, 2004.

T. Town, V. Nikolic, and J. Tan, The microglial "activation" continuum: from innate to adaptive responses, J Neuroinflammation, vol.2, p.24, 2005.

W. J. Streit, Microglia as neuroprotective, immunocompetent cells of the CNS, Glia, vol.40, pp.133-139, 2002.

T. Wyss-coray, C. Lin, F. Yan, G. Q. Yu, M. Rohde et al., TGF-beta1 promotes microglial amyloid-beta clearance and reduces plaque burden in transgenic mice, Nat Med, vol.7, pp.612-618, 2001.

C. A. Colton, Heterogeneity of microglial activation in the innate immune response in the brain, J Neuroimmune Pharmacol, vol.4, pp.399-418, 2009.

R. M. Ransohoff and V. H. Perry, Microglial physiology: unique stimuli, specialized responses, Annu Rev Immunol, vol.27, pp.119-145, 2009.

P. L. Mcgeer and E. G. Mcgeer, NSAIDs and Alzheimer disease: epidemiological, animal model and clinical studies, Neurobiol Aging, vol.28, pp.639-647, 2007.

B. K. Martin, C. Szekely, J. Brandt, S. Piantadosi, J. C. Breitner et al., Cognitive function over time in the Alzheimer's Disease Anti-inflammatory Prevention Trial (ADAPT): results of a randomized, Arch Neurol, vol.65, pp.896-905, 2008.

H. C. Ha, L. D. Hester, and S. H. Snyder, Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 dependence of stress-induced transcription factors and associated gene expression in glia, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.99, pp.3270-3275, 2002.

W. L. Kraus and J. T. Lis, PARP goes transcription. Cell, vol.113, pp.677-683, 2003.

A. Chiarugi and M. A. Moskowitz, Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activity promotes NF-kappaB-driven transcription and microglial activation: implication for neurodegenerative disorders, J Neurochem, vol.85, pp.306-317, 2003.

O. Ullrich, A. Diestel, I. Y. Eyupoglu, and R. Nitsch, Regulation of microglial expression of integrins by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, Nat Cell Biol, vol.3, pp.1035-1042, 2001.

. Kauppinen, Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol.8, p.152, 2011.

T. M. Kauppinen, S. W. Suh, A. E. Berman, A. M. Hamby, and R. A. Swanson, Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase suppresses inflammation and promotes recovery after ischemic injury, J Cereb Blood Flow Metab, vol.29, pp.820-829, 2009.

H. Nakajima, H. Nagaso, N. Kakui, M. Ishikawa, T. Hiranuma et al., Critical role of the automodification of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 in nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent gene expression in primary cultured mouse glial cells, J Biol Chem, vol.279, pp.42774-42786, 2004.

W. J. Chang and R. Alvarez-gonzalez, The sequence-specific DNA binding of NFkappa B is reversibly regulated by the automodification reaction of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1, J Biol Chem, vol.276, pp.47664-47670, 2001.

P. O. Hassa, C. Buerki, C. Lombardi, R. Imhof, and M. O. Hottiger, Transcriptional coactivation of nuclear factor-kappaB-dependent gene expression by p300 is regulated by poly(ADP)-ribose polymerase-1, J Biol Chem, vol.278, pp.45145-45153, 2003.

P. O. Hassa, M. Covic, S. Hasan, R. Imhof, and M. O. Hottiger, The enzymatic and DNA binding activity of PARP-1 are not required for NF-kappa B coactivator function, J Biol Chem, vol.276, pp.45588-45597, 2001.

M. Zerfaoui, Y. Suzuki, A. S. Naura, C. P. Hans, C. Nichols et al., Nuclear translocation of p65 NF-kappaB is sufficient for VCAM-1, but not ICAM-1, expression in TNF-stimulated smooth muscle cells: Differential requirement for PARP-1 expression and interaction, Cell Signal, vol.20, pp.186-194, 2008.

T. M. Kauppinen and R. A. Swanson, Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 promotes microglial activation, proliferation, and matrix metalloproteinase-9-mediated neuron death, J Immunol, vol.174, pp.2288-2296, 2005.

T. M. Kauppinen, Y. Higashi, S. W. Suh, C. Escartin, K. Nagasawa et al., Zinc triggers microglial activation, J Neurosci, vol.28, pp.5827-5835, 2008.

S. Love, R. Barber, and G. K. Wilcock, Increased poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of nuclear proteins in Alzheimer's disease, Brain, vol.122, pp.247-253, 1999.

Z. Q. Wang, B. Auer, L. Stingl, H. Berghammer, D. Haidacher et al., Mice lacking ADPRT and poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation develop normally but are susceptible to skin disease, Genes Dev, vol.9, pp.509-520, 1995.

L. Mucke, E. Masliah, G. Q. Yu, M. Mallory, E. M. Rockenstein et al., High-level neuronal expression of abeta 1-42 in wild-type human amyloid protein precursor transgenic mice: synaptotoxicity without plaque formation, J Neurosci, vol.20, pp.4050-4058, 2000.

Y. Chen and R. A. Swanson, The glutamate transporters EAAT2 and EAAT3 mediate cysteine uptake in cortical neuron cultures, J Neurochem, vol.84, pp.1332-1339, 2003.

T. Heurtaux, A. Michelucci, S. Losciuto, C. Gallotti, P. Felten et al., Microglial activation depends on beta-amyloid conformation: role of the formylpeptide receptor 2, J Neurochem, vol.114, pp.576-586, 2010.

A. R. Simard, D. Soulet, G. Gowing, J. P. Julien, and S. Rivest, Bone marrow-derived microglia play a critical role in restricting senile plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease, Neuron, vol.49, pp.489-502, 2006.

A. M. Floden and C. K. Combs, Beta-amyloid stimulates murine postnatal and adult microglia cultures in a unique manner, J Neurosci, vol.26, pp.4644-4648, 2006.

P. K. Smith, R. I. Krohn, G. T. Hermanson, A. K. Mallia, F. H. Gartner et al., Measurement of protein using bicinchoninic acid, Anal Biochem, vol.150, pp.76-85, 1985.

J. Chen, Y. Zhou, S. Mueller-steiner, L. F. Chen, H. Kwon et al., SIRT1 protects against microglia-dependent amyloid-beta toxicity through inhibiting NF-kappaB signaling, J Biol Chem, vol.280, pp.40364-40374, 2005.

S. W. Suh, K. Aoyama, Y. Chen, P. Garnier, Y. Matsumori et al., Hypoglycemic neuronal death and cognitive impairment are prevented by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors administered after hypoglycemia, J Neurosci, vol.23, pp.10681-10690, 2003.

K. Johnson-wood, M. Lee, R. Motter, K. Hu, G. Gordon et al., Amyloid precursor protein processing and A beta42 deposition in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.94, pp.1550-1555, 1997.

L. R. Squire, J. T. Wixted, and R. E. Clark, Recognition memory and the medial temporal lobe: a new perspective, Nat Rev Neurosci, vol.8, pp.872-883, 2007.

J. J. Palop, B. Jones, L. Kekonius, J. Chin, G. Q. Yu et al., Neuronal depletion of calcium-dependent proteins in the dentate gyrus is tightly linked to Alzheimer's disease-related cognitive deficits, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.100, pp.9572-9577, 2003.

T. Tikka, B. L. Fiebich, G. Goldsteins, R. Keinanen, and J. Koistinaho, Minocycline, a tetracycline derivative, is neuroprotective against excitotoxicity by inhibiting activation and proliferation of microglia, J Neurosci, vol.21, pp.2580-2588, 2001.

C. K. Combs, J. C. Karlo, and S. C. Kao, Landreth GE: beta-Amyloid stimulation of microglia and monocytes results in TNFalpha-dependent expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and neuronal apoptosis, J Neurosci, vol.21, pp.1179-1188, 2001.

M. A. Yenari, T. M. Kauppinen, and R. A. Swanson, Microglial activation in stroke: therapeutic targets, Neurotherapeutics, vol.7, pp.378-391, 2010.

P. A. Baeuerle and T. Henkel, Function and activation of NF-kappa B in the immune system, Annu Rev Immunol, vol.12, pp.141-179, 1994.

Q. Li and I. M. Verma, NF-kappaB regulation in the immune system, Nat Rev Immunol, vol.2, pp.725-734, 2002.

J. W. Pierce, R. Schoenleber, G. Jesmok, J. Best, S. A. Moore et al., Novel inhibitors of cytokine-induced IkappaBalpha phosphorylation and endothelial cell adhesion molecule expression show anti-inflammatory effects in vivo, J Biol Chem, vol.272, pp.21096-21103, 1997.

P. E. Batchelor, G. T. Liberatore, J. Y. Wong, M. J. Porritt, F. Frerichs et al., Activated macrophages and microglia induce dopaminergic sprouting in the injured striatum and express brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, J Neurosci, vol.19, pp.1708-1716, 1999.

S. Elkabes, E. M. Dicicco-bloom, and I. B. Black, Brain microglia/macrophages express neurotrophins that selectively regulate microglial proliferation and function, J Neurosci, vol.16, pp.2508-2521, 1996.

K. M. Guthrie, T. Nguyen, and C. M. Gall, Insulin-like growth factor-1 mRNA is increased in deafferented hippocampus: spatiotemporal correspondence of a trophic event with axon sprouting, J Comp Neurol, vol.352, pp.147-160, 1995.

K. C. Tran, J. K. Ryu, and J. G. Mclarnon, Induction of angiogenesis by plateletactivating factor in the rat striatum, Neuroreport, vol.16, pp.1579-1583, 2005.

J. K. Ryu, T. Cho, H. B. Choi, Y. T. Wang, and J. G. Mclarnon, Microglial VEGF receptor response is an integral chemotactic component in Alzheimer's disease pathology, J Neurosci, vol.29, pp.3-13, 2009.

R. Kiefer, R. Gold, J. Gehrmann, D. Lindholm, H. Wekerle et al., Transforming growth factor beta expression in reactive spinal cord microglia and meningeal inflammatory cells during experimental allergic neuritis, J Neurosci Res, vol.36, pp.391-398, 1993.

R. N. Kalaria, D. L. Cohen, D. R. Premkumar, S. Nag, J. C. Lamanna et al., Vascular endothelial growth factor in Alzheimer's disease and experimental cerebral ischemia, Brain Res Mol Brain Res, vol.62, pp.101-105, 1998.

T. Wyss-coray, Tgf-Beta pathway as a potential target in neurodegeneration and Alzheimer's, Curr Alzheimer Res, vol.3, pp.191-195, 2006.

T. Town, Y. Laouar, C. Pittenger, T. Mori, C. A. Szekely et al., Blocking TGF-beta-Smad2/3 innate immune signaling mitigates Alzheimer-like pathology, Nat Med, vol.14, pp.681-687, 2008.

M. M. Albasser, G. L. Poirier, and J. P. Aggleton, Qualitatively different modes of perirhinal-hippocampal engagement when rats explore novel vs. familiar objects as revealed by c-Fos imaging, Eur J Neurosci, vol.31, pp.134-147

H. Wan, J. P. Aggleton, and M. W. Brown, Different contributions of the hippocampus and perirhinal cortex to recognition memory, J Neurosci, vol.19, pp.1142-1148, 1999.

R. Valdor, V. Schreiber, L. Saenz, T. Martinez, A. Munoz-suano et al., Regulation of NFAT by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity in T cells, Mol Immunol, vol.45, pp.1863-1871, 2008.

M. Cohen-armon, L. Visochek, D. Rozensal, A. Kalal, I. Geistrikh et al., DNA-independent PARP-1 activation by phosphorylated ERK2 increases Elk1 activity: a link to histone acetylation, Mol Cell, vol.25, pp.297-308, 2007.

N. K. Phulwani and T. Kielian, Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) 1-3 regulate astrocyte activation, J Neurochem, vol.106, pp.578-590, 2008.

I. Maezawa, P. I. Zimin, H. Wulff, and L. W. Jin, Amyloid-beta protein oligomer at low nanomolar concentrations activates microglia and induces microglial neurotoxicity, J Biol Chem, vol.286, pp.3693-3706, 2011.

A. M. Floden, S. Li, and C. K. Combs, Beta-amyloid-stimulated microglia induce neuron death via synergistic stimulation of tumor necrosis factor alpha and NMDA receptors, J Neurosci, vol.25, pp.2566-2575, 2005.

K. M. Boje and P. K. Arora, Microglial-produced nitric oxide and reactive nitrogen oxides mediate neuronal cell death, Brain Res, vol.587, pp.250-256, 1992.

. Kauppinen, Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol.8, p.152, 2011.

C. C. Alano, T. M. Kauppinen, A. V. Valls, and R. A. Swanson, Minocycline inhibits poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 at nanomolar concentrations, Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.103, pp.9685-9690, 2006.

A. Familian, P. Eikelenboom, and R. Veerhuis, Minocycline does not affect amyloid beta phagocytosis by human microglial cells, Neurosci Lett, vol.416, pp.87-91, 2007.

T. M. Malm, J. Magga, G. F. Kuh, T. Vatanen, M. Koistinaho et al., Minocycline reduces engraftment and activation of bone marrowderived cells but sustains their phagocytic activity in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, Glia, vol.56, pp.1767-1779, 2008.

T. J. Seabrook, L. Jiang, M. Maier, and C. A. Lemere, Minocycline affects microglia activation, Abeta deposition, and behavior in APP-tg mice, Glia, vol.53, pp.776-782, 2006.

Y. Choi, H. S. Kim, K. Y. Shin, E. M. Kim, M. Kim et al., Minocycline attenuates neuronal cell death and improves cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease models, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.32, pp.2393-2404, 2007.

W. Noble, C. Garwood, J. Stephenson, A. M. Kinsey, D. P. Hanger et al., Minocycline reduces the development of abnormal tau species in models of Alzheimer's disease, FASEB J, vol.23, pp.739-750, 2009.

. Kauppinen, Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 modulates microglial responses to amyloid ?, Journal of Neuroinflammation, vol.8, p.152, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/cea-02168436