, * Electronic address: Corresponding author. Email: marc.barthelemy@ipht.fr

, United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014) World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision, vol.352

H. Barbosa, Human mobility: Models and applications, Physics Reports, vol.734, pp.1-74, 2018.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/cea-01626252

D. Dodman, Blaming cities for climate change? An analysis of urban greenhouse gas emissions inventories, Environment and Urbanization, vol.21, pp.185-201, 2009.

E. L. Glaeser and M. E. Kahn, The greenness of cities: Carbon dioxide emissions and urban development, Journal of Urban Economics, vol.67, pp.404-418, 2010.

P. G. Newman, The environmental impact of cities, Environment and Urbanization, vol.18, pp.275-295, 2006.

E. A. Oliveira, A. Jr, J. S. Makse, and H. A. , Large cities are less green, Scientific Reports, vol.4, pp.13-21, 2014.

P. G. Newman and J. R. Kenworthy, Cities and automobile dependence: An international sourcebook, 1989.

F. Creutzig, Global typology of urban energy use and potentials for an urbanization mitigation wedge, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.112, pp.6283-6288, 1920.

M. Balmer, N. Cetin, K. Nagel, and B. Raney, Towards truly agent-based traffic and mobility simulations, Proceedings of the Third International Joint Conference on Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems, vol.1, pp.60-67, 2004.

A. L. Bazzan and F. Klugl, A review on agent-based technology for traffic and transportation. The Knowledge Engineering Review, vol.29, pp.375-403, 2014.

K. Nagel and M. Schreckenberg, A cellular automaton model for freeway traffic, Journal de physique I, vol.2, pp.2221-2229, 1992.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/jpa-00246697

T. Nagatani, The physics of traffic jams, Reports on progress in physics, vol.65, p.1331, 2002.

R. Arnott, D. Palma, A. Lindsey, and R. , Economics of a bottleneck, Journal of urban Economics, vol.27, pp.111-141, 1990.

G. Duranton and M. A. Turner, The fundamental law of road congestion: Evidence from US cities, American Economic Review, vol.101, issue.6, pp.2616-52, 2011.

D. Pumain, Scaling laws and urban systems, 2004.

M. C. Gonzalez, A. C. Hidalgo, and A. L. Barabasi, Understanding individual human mobility patterns, Nature, vol.453, issue.7196, p.779, 2008.

L. Bettencourt and G. West, A unified theory of urban living, Nature, vol.467, issue.7318, pp.912-913, 2010.

M. Batty, The size, scale, and shape of cities, Science, vol.319, issue.5864, pp.769-771, 2008.

M. Barthelemy, The structure and dynamics of cities, 2016.

M. Fujita and H. Ogawa, Multiple equilibria and structural transition of non-monocentric urban configurations, Regional science and urban economics, vol.12, issue.2, pp.161-196, 1982.

R. Louf and M. Barthelemy, Modeling the polycentric transition of cities, Physical Review Letters, vol.111, 2013.

R. Louf and M. Barthelemy, How congestion shapes cities: From mobility patterns to scaling, Scientific Reports, vol.4, pp.1-9, 2014.

Y. Crozet, Le temps et les transports de voyageurs, 2005.

E. L. Glaeser, M. E. Kahn, and J. Rappaport, Why do the poor live in cities? The role of public transportation, Journal of Urban Economics, vol.63, issue.1, pp.1-24, 2008.

D. Branston, Link capacity functions: A review, Transportation Research, vol.10, issue.4, pp.223-236, 1976.

M. E. Ben-akiva, S. R. Lerman, and S. R. Lerman, Discrete choice analysis: theory and application to travel demand, vol.9, 1985.

. Numbeo, Rankings by City of Average Monthly Net Salary (After Tax) (Salaries And Financing), 2018.

D. Roque and H. E. Masoumi, An analysis of car ownership in Latin American cities: a perspective for future research, Periodica Polytechnica Transportation Engineering, vol.44, issue.1, pp.5-12, 2016.

, TomTom International BV, 2008.

L. M. Bettencourt, J. Lobo, D. Helbing, C. Kuhnert, and G. B. West, Growth, innovation, scaling, and the pace of life in cities, Proceedings of the national academy of sciences, vol.104, pp.7301-7306, 2007.

J. C. Leitao, J. M. Miotto, M. Gerlach, and E. G. Altmann, Is this scaling nonlinear?, Royal Society open science, vol.3, issue.7, p.150649, 2016.

, The OECD Metropolitan Areas Database visualized through the Metropolitan eXplorer, 2016.

M. Marks, J. Mason, and G. Oliveira, People Near Transit: Improving Accessibility and Rapid Transit Coverage in Large Cities (Institute for Transportation and Development Policy, 2016.

G. Singer and . Burda, Fast Cities. A comparison of rapid transit in major Canadian cities, 2014.

, Part de la populationàpopulation`populationà proximité d'un arret de métro ou d'un tram chrono (500m) (IBSA.brussels, 2015.

, Singapore's Transportation Challenges and Plans, 2013.

, Statistics of Japan, Housing and Land Survey, 2013.

B. Mckenzie, Who drives to work? Commuting by automobile in the United States, American Community Survey Reports, 2013.

, Commuters using sustainable transportation in census metropolitan areas Census of Population 2016, 2017.

M. Kennisinstituut-voor, , 2016.

, EMTA Barometer of Public Transport in European Metropolitean Areas, 2009.

A. , A. , and A. De-barcelona, , 2012.

. Government-of-singapore, Singapore Household Interview Travel Survey, 2012.

, The OECD Metropolitan Areas Database visualized through the Metropolitan eXplorer, 2016.

, World Bank, Trading Economics

, Cities and climate change: an urgent agenda, 2010.

C. Buenos-aires, GHC Inventory, 20102015.

. World-resource-institute, , vol.18, 2018.

K. Lebrun, Cahiers de lObservatoire de la mobilité de la Rgion de, Les pratiques de déplacementdéplacementà Bruxelles, 2012.

, Statistics Canada, Census of Population, 2016.

M. Uranga and C. , Los portenos pierden hasta 18 dias al ano en ir y volver de trabajar, 2016.

R. H. Pereira and T. Schwanen, Commute time in Brazil (1992-2009): differences between metropolitan areas, by income levels and gender (IPEA, 2015.

, Governing calculations of 2011-2015 American Community Survey data, 2018.

, BITRE, Five facts about commuting in Australia, 2016.

. Ministry and . Land, , vol.18, 2018.

, Sample Enumeration Results of the 2005 Population Census (Internal migration and commuting), Statistics Korea

, Beijing workers have longest daily commute in China at 52 minutes each way, 2015.

. Numbeo, Rankings by City of Average Monthly Net Salary (After Tax) (Salaries And Financing), 2018.

Y. Crozet, Le temps et les transports de voyageurs, 2005.

, TomTom International BV, 2008.