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Diversifying anaerobic respiration strategies to compete in the rhizosphere

Abstract : The rhizosphere is the interface between plant roots and soil where intense, varied interactions between plants and microbes influence plants 'health and growth through their influence on biochemical cycles, such as the carbon, nitrogen, and iron cycles. The rhizosphere is also a changing environment where oxygen can be rapidly limited and anaerobic zones can be established. Microorganisms successfully colonize the rhizosphere when they possess specific traits referred to as rhizosphere competence. Anaerobic respiration flexibility contributes to the rhizosphere competence of microbes. Indeed, a wide range of compounds that are available in the rhizosphere can serve as alternative terminal electron acceptors during anaerobic respiration such as nitrates, iron, carbon compounds, sulfur, metalloids, and radionuclides. In the presence of multiple terminal electron acceptors in a complex environment such as the rhizosphere and in the absence of O-2, microorganisms will first use the most energetic option to sustain growth. Anaerobic respiration has been deeply studied, and the genes involved in anaerobic respiration have been identified. However, aqueous environment and paddy soils are the most studied environments for anaerobic respiration, even if we provide evidence in this review that anaerobic respiration also occurs in the plant rhizosphere. Indeed, we provide evidence by performing a BLAST analysis on metatranscriptomic data that genes involved in iron, sulfur, arsenate and selenate anaerobic respiration are expressed in the rhizosphere, underscoring that the rhizosphere environment is suitable for the establishment of anaerobic respiration. We thus focus this review on current research concerning the different types of anaerobic respiration that occur in the rhizosphere. We also discuss the flexibility of anaerobic respiration as a fundamental trait for the microbial colonization of roots, environmental and ecological adaptation, persistence and bioremediation in the rhizosphere. Anaerobic respiration appears to be a key process for the functioning of an ecosystem and interactions between plants and microbes.
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Solène Lecomte, Wafa Achouak, Danis Abrouk, Thierry Heulin, Xavier Nesme, et al.. Diversifying anaerobic respiration strategies to compete in the rhizosphere. Frontiers in Environmental Science, Frontiers, 2018, 6, pp.139. ⟨10.3389/fenvs.2018.00139⟩. ⟨cea-01968930⟩

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