, recorded from the fs to the ns time-scales, for both genomic DNA and model oligonucleotides, have brought valuable information on: ultrafast energy transfer involving exciton states, 1-3 low energy (UVA) mixed pp*/charge transfer states, 4-6 and High energy Emitting Long-lived Mixed (HELM) states. 7,8 It was shown that the collective behaviour of the bases in respect to these effects increases with the rigidity of the system which is affected by the duplex/G-quadruplex size and the ionic strength of the buffered solution, Dimitra Markovitsi remarked: Fluorescence anisotropy, ?uorescence decays and ?uorescence spectra
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