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Inward H$^+$ pump xenorhodopsin: Mechanism and alternative optogenetic approach

Abstract : Generation of an electrochemical proton gradient is the first step of cell bioenergetics. In prokaryotes, the gradient is created by outward membrane protein proton pumps. Inward plasma membrane native proton pumps are yet unknown. We describe comprehensive functional studies of the representatives of the yet noncharacterized xenorhodopsins from Nanohaloarchaea family of microbial rhodopsins. They are inward proton pumps as we demonstrate in model membrane systems, $Escherichia\ coli$ cells, human embryonic kidney cells, neuroblastoma cells, and rat hippocampal neuronal cells. We also solved the structure of a xenorhodopsin from the nanohalosarchaeon $Nanosalina$ (NsXeR) and suggest a mechanism of inward proton pumping. We demonstrate that the NsXeR is a powerful pump, which is able to elicit action potentials in rat hippocampal neuronal cells up to their maximal intrinsic firing frequency. Hence, inwardly directed proton pumps are suitable for light-induced remote control of neurons, and they are an alternative to the well-known cation-selective channelrhodopsins.
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Contributor : Bruno Savelli <>
Submitted on : Friday, October 5, 2018 - 11:31:18 AM
Last modification on : Monday, March 29, 2021 - 2:43:04 PM

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Vitaly Shevchenko, Thomas Mager, Kirill Kovalev, Vitaly Polovinkin, Alexey Alekseev, et al.. Inward H$^+$ pump xenorhodopsin: Mechanism and alternative optogenetic approach. Science Advances , American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), 2017, 3 (9), pp.e1603187. ⟨10.1126/sciadv.1603187⟩. ⟨cea-01888660⟩



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