W. Cochran, Crystal stability and the theory of ferroelectricity, Advances in Physics, vol.9, issue.36, pp.387-423, 1960.

G. Arlt, D. Hennings, and G. De-with, Dielectric properties of fine-grained barium titanate ceramics, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.58, issue.4, pp.1619-1625, 1985.

Q. Zhang, T. &. Cagin, and W. A. , III The ferroelectric and cubic phases in BaTiO 3 ferroelectrics are also antiferroelectric, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.103, pp.14695-14700, 2006.

P. Forsbergh, Domain Structures and Phase Transitions in Barium Titanate, Physical Review, vol.76, p.1187, 1949.

W. J. Merz, Physical Review, vol.95, issue.3, pp.690-698, 1954.

R. Scientific, , vol.8, 2018.

F. L. English, Domain Formation and Domain Wall Motions in Ferroelectric BaTiO 3 Single Crystals, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.39, issue.5, pp.2302-2305, 1968.

S. Liu, L. Zhang, J. Wang, Y. Zhao, and X. Wang, Abnormal Curie temperature behavior and enhanced strain property by controlling substitution site of Ce ions in BaTiO 3 ceramics, Ceramics International, vol.43, issue.16, p.10863, 2017.

V. Mishra, Electronic and optical properties of BaTiO 3 across tetragonal to cubic phase transition: An experimental and theoretical investigation, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.122, issue.6, p.65105, 2017.

W. Zhong, D. Vanderbilt, and K. M. Rabe, First-principles theory of ferroelectric phase transitions for perovskites: The case of BaTiO 3, Physical Review B, vol.52, issue.9, pp.6301-6312, 1995.

E. K. Salje, S. Li, M. Stengel, P. Gumbsch, and X. Ding, Flexoelectricity and the polarity of complex ferroelastic twin patterns, Physical Review B-Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, vol.94, issue.2, pp.1-11, 2016.

E. K. Salje and . Ferroelastic, Materials. Annual Review of Materials Research, vol.42, issue.1, pp.265-283, 2012.

Y. Yamada and G. Shirane, Study of Critical Fluctuations in BaTiO 3 by Neutron Scattering, Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, vol.53, issue.2, p.160, 1989.

A. Pramanick, Microdomain dynamics in single-crystal BaTiO 3 during paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transition measured with time-of-flight neutron scattering, Physical Review B-Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, vol.92, p.174103, 2015.

B. Ravel, E. A. Stern, R. I. Vedrinskii, and V. Kraizman, Local structure and the phase transitions of BaTiO 3, Ferroelectrics, vol.206, issue.1, pp.407-430, 1998.

E. K. Salje, Elastic excitations in BaTiO 3 single crystals and ceramics: Mobile domain boundaries and polar nanoregions observed by resonant ultrasonic spectroscopy, Physical Review B-Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, vol.87, issue.1, p.14106, 2013.

O. Aktas, M. A. Carpenter, and E. K. Salje, Polar precursor ordering in BaTiO 3 detected by resonant piezoelectric spectroscopy, Applied Physics Letters, vol.103, issue.14, p.142902, 2013.

E. Dul'kin, J. Petzelt, S. Kamba, E. Mojaev, and M. Roth, Relaxor-like behavior of BaTiO 3 crystals from acoustic emission study, Applied Physics Letters, vol.97, issue.3, p.32903, 2010.

X. Wang, E. K. Salje, J. Sun, and X. Ding, Glassy behavior and dynamic tweed in defect-free multiferroics Glassy behavior and dynamic tweed in defect-free multiferroics, Applied Physics Letters, vol.112, issue.1, p.12901, 2018.

A. M. Bratkovsky, S. C. Marais, V. Heine, and E. K. Salje, The theory of fluctuations and texture embryos in structural phase transitions mediated by strain, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, vol.6, issue.20, pp.3679-3696, 1994.

E. K. Salje, A pre-martensitic elastic anomaly in nanomaterials: Elasticity of surface and interface layers, Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, vol.20, p.485003, 2008.

J. Novak and E. K. Salje, Surface structure of domain walls, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, vol.10, issue.21, pp.359-366, 1998.

B. Houchmandzadeh, J. Lajzerowicz, and E. Salje, Relaxations near surfaces and interfaces for first-, second-and third-neighbour interactions: Theory and applications to polytypism, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, vol.4, issue.49, pp.9779-9794, 1992.

S. Kalinin and D. Bonnell, Local Potential and Polarization Screening on Ferroelectric Surfaces, Phys. Rev. B, vol.63, issue.12, pp.125411-125412, 2001.

A. Höfer, Persistence of Surface Domain Structures for a Bulk Ferroelectric above T C, Physical Review Letters, vol.108, issue.8, pp.87602-87603, 2012.

A. N. Morozovska, E. A. Eliseev, N. V. Morozovsky, and S. V. Kalinin, Ferroionic states in ferroelectric thin films, Physical Review B, vol.95, pp.195413-195414, 2017.

A. Pancotti, J. Wang, P. Chen, L. Tortech, C. Teodorescu et al., X-ray photoelectron diffraction study of relaxation and rumpling of ferroelectric domains in BaTiO 3 (001), Physical Review B, vol.87, p.184116, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/cea-01477579

E. K. Salje, E. Dul'kin, and M. Roth, Acoustic emission during the ferroelectric transition Pm 3m to P4mm in BaTiO 3 and the ferroelastic transition R 3m-C2/c in Pb 3 (PO 4 ) 2, Applied Physics Letters, vol.106, issue.15, p.152903, 2015.

W. Li and M. Alexe, Investigation on switching kinetics in epitaxial Pb (Zr 0.2 Ti 0.8 )O 3 ferroelectric thin films: Role of the 90 domain walls, Applied Physics Letters, vol.91, issue.26, pp.2005-2008, 2007.

L. Jiang, Tunneling electroresistance induced by interfacial phase transitions in ultrathin oxide heterostructures, Nano Letters, vol.13, issue.12, pp.5837-5843, 2013.

L. W. Martin, Multiferroics and magnetoelectrics: Thin films and nanostructures, Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, vol.20, issue.43, 2008.

M. D. Glinchuk, E. A. Eliseev, A. N. Morozovska, and R. Blinc, Giant magnetoelectric effect induced by intrinsic surface stress in ferroic nanorods, Physical Review B-Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, vol.77, issue.2, pp.24106-24107, 2008.

E. Bousquet, Improper ferroelectricity in perovskite oxide artificial superlattices, Nature, vol.452, issue.7188, pp.732-736, 2008.

N. Barrett, Full field electron spectromicroscopy applied to ferroelectric materials, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.113, issue.18, pp.187213-187217, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/cea-01477631

A. E. Romanov, Domain pattern formation in epitaxial rhombohedral ferroelectric films. II. Interfacial defects and energetics, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.83, issue.5, pp.2754-2765, 1998.

J. M. Ball, C. Chu, and R. D. James, Hysteresis During Stress-Induced Variant Rearrangement, Le Journal de Physique IV 05(C8), pp.8-245, 1995.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/jpa-00254083

J. M. Ball and R. D. James, Proposed Experimental Tests of a Theory of Fine Microstructure and the 2-Well Problem, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series a-Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, vol.338, pp.389-450, 1650.

J. M. Ball and R. D. James, Fine phase mixtures as minimizers of energy, Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis, vol.100, issue.1, pp.13-52, 1987.

E. K. Salje, X. Ding, Z. Zhao, T. Lookman, and A. Saxena, Thermally activated avalanches: Jamming and the progression of needle domains, Physical Review B, vol.83, issue.10, pp.104109-104110, 2011.

S. Mayer, Experimental and theoretical evidence of displacive martensite in an intermetallic Mo-containing γ-TiAl based alloy, Acta Materialia, vol.115, pp.242-249, 2016.

Y. M. Jin, Y. U. Wang, A. G. Khachaturyan, J. F. Li, and D. Viehland, Adaptive ferroelectric states in systems with low domain wall energy: Tetragonal microdomains, Journal of Applied Physics, vol.94, issue.5, pp.3629-3640, 2003.

Z. Xie, Y. Liu, and J. Van-humbeeck, Microstructure of NiTi shape memory alloy due to tension-compression cyclic deformation, Acta Materialia, vol.46, issue.6, pp.1989-2000, 1998.

E. K. Salje and Y. Ishibashi, Mesoscopic structures in ferroelastic crystals: Needle twins and right-angled domains, Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, vol.8, issue.44, pp.8477-8495, 1996.

P. Potnis and J. Huber, In-situ observation of needle domain evolution in barium titanate single crystals, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol.33, issue.2, pp.327-333, 2013.

A. I. Khan, X. Marti, C. Serrao, R. Ramesh, and S. Salahuddin, Voltage-Controlled Ferroelastic Switching in Pb(Zr 0.2 Ti 0.8 )O 0.8 Thin Films, Nano Letters, vol.15, pp.2229-2234, 2015.

S. Y. Cheng, N. J. Ho, and H. Y. Lu, Transformation-induced twinning: The 90 and 180 ferroelectric domains in tetragonal barium titanate, Journal of the American Ceramic Society, vol.89, issue.7, pp.2177-2187, 2006.

J. Bornarel and J. Lajzerowicz, Interdomain and domain defect interactions in kdp, Ferroelectrics, vol.4, issue.1, pp.177-187, 1972.

K. Hamano, Dynamical Process of Domain Pattern Coarsening in Ferroelectric Sodium Nitrite I. Microscopic Observation, J. Phys. Soc. Japan, vol.65, p.142, 1995.

R. Scientific, , vol.8, 2018.

J. L. Wang, B. Vilquin, and N. Barrett, Screening of Ferroelectric Domains on BaTiO 3 (001) Surface by Ultraviolet Photo-induced Charge and Dissociative Water Adsorption, Appl. Phys. Lett, vol.101, issue.9, pp.92902-92903, 2012.

R. I. Eglitis and A. I. Popov, Systematic trends in (001) surface ab initio calculations of ABO 3 perovskites, Journal of Saudi Chemical Society, vol.22, issue.4, pp.459-468, 2017.

J. E. Rault, Thickness-Dependent Polarization of Strained BiFeO 3 Films with Constant Tetragonality, Phys. Rev. Lett, vol.109, issue.26, 2012.

I. Ponomareva, L. Bellaiche, T. Ostapchuk, J. Hlinka, and J. Petzelt, Terahertz dielectric response of cubic BaTiO 3, Physical Review B-Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, vol.77, issue.1, pp.12102-12103, 2008.

J. E. Rault, Polarization Sensitive Surface Band Structure of Doped BaTiO 3 (001), Phys. Rev. Lett, vol.111, issue.12, pp.127602-127603, 2013.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/cea-01477600

M. Escher, Nanoelectron spectroscopy for chemical analysis: a novel energy filter for imaging x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, vol.17, issue.16, pp.1329-1338, 2005.

O. Renault, Energy-filtered PEEM imaging of polycrystalline Cu surfaces with work function contrast and high lateral resolution, Surface Science and Nanotechnology, vol.4, pp.431-434, 2006.

F. De-la-peña, N. Barrett, L. Zagonel, M. Walls, and O. Renault, Full field chemical imaging of buried native sub-oxide layers on doped silicon patterns, Surface Science, vol.604, pp.1628-1636, 2010.

C. Mathieu, Microscopic correlation between chemical and electronic states in epitaxial graphene on SiC(0001-), Physical Review B, vol.83, issue.23, pp.235436-235437, 2011.