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Patterned neuronal networks using nanodiamonds and the effect of varying nanodiamond properties on neuronal adhesion and outgrowth

Abstract : OBJECTIVE: Detonation nanodiamond monolayer coatings are exceptionally biocompatible substrates for $in\ vitro$ cell culture. However, the ability of nanodiamond coatings of different origin, size, surface chemistry and morphology to promote neuronal adhesion, and the ability to pattern neurons with nanodiamonds have yet to be investigated. APPROACH: Various nanodiamond coatings of different types are investigated for their ability to promote neuronal adhesion with respect to surface coating parameters and neurite extension. Nanodiamond tracks are patterned using photolithography and reactive ion etching. MAIN RESULTS: Universal promotion of neuronal adhesion is observed on all coatings tested and analysis shows surface roughness to not be a sufficient metric to describe biocompatibility, but instead nanoparticle size and curvature shows a significant correlation with neurite extension. Furthermore, neuronal patterning is achieved with high contrast using patterned nanodiamond coatings down to at least 10 $\mu$m. SIGNIFICANCE: The results of nanoparticle size and curvature being influential upon neuronal adhesion has great implications towards biomaterial design, and the ability to pattern neurons using nanodiamond tracks shows great promise for applications both $in\ vitro$ and $in\ vivo$
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R. Edgington, A. Thalhammer, J. Welch, A. Bongrain, P. Bergonzo, et al.. Patterned neuronal networks using nanodiamonds and the effect of varying nanodiamond properties on neuronal adhesion and outgrowth. Journal of Neural Engineering, IOP Publishing, 2013, 10, pp.056022. ⟨10.1088/1741-2560/10/5/056022⟩. ⟨cea-01791988⟩

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