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Salla Ahonen Nikolaos Arvanitidis Anton Auer Emilie Baillet Nazario Bellato Koen Binnemans Gian Andrea Blengini Danilo Bonato Ewa Brouwer Sybolt Brower Matthias Buchert Reinhard Bütikofer Helena Cavaco Viegas Jean-Pierre Cescutti Andrzej Chmielarz Patrice Christmann Claire Claessen Gwenole Cozigou Daniel De Oliveira Eimear Deady Ronny Denis Flor Diaz Pulido Maria Edvardsson Danilo Fontana Christer Forsgren Jean Christophe Gabriel 1 Roland Gauss Marko Gernuks Alan Gibbon Magnus Gislev James R.J. Goddin Manuel Gomez Mario Gonçalves Kathryn Goodenough Torsten Graupner Milan Grohol Oliver Gutfleisch Jens Gutzmer Horst Hejny Henning Holmstrom Slavomir Hredzak Eeva Jernström Animesh Jha Per Kalvig Roderick Kefferputz David Kennedy Jaakko Kooroshy Floriana La Marca Olivier Larcher Magnus Leijd Herman Lenting Friederike Lindner Elbert Loois Patricia Lopez Vicente Paul Lusty Terence Makanyire Patrice Millet Antonia Morales Zoltan Nemeth Alessandro Ocera Erik Offerman Konstantinos Papavasileiou Ioannis Paspaliaris David Phillip Peck Mattia Pellegrini S Pellet-Rostaing Urs Peuker Maarten Quix Marja Liisa Räisänen Enrique Redondo Xavier Revest Alain Rollat Justin Salminen Sergio Sanchez-Segad Ilona Santavaara Gerhard Schmidt Richard Sheridan Axel Sjöqvist Slavko Solar Mats Sundgren Colin Tattam Maria Taxiarchou Michael Taylor Guenter Tiess Arnold Tukker Casper van Der Eijk Alexis Van Maercke Janneke Van Veen Silvia Vecchione Karl Vrancken Hong Vu Allan Walton Erik Westin Antje Wittenberg Hermann Wotruba Guozhu Ye Sebastian Zaleski 
Abstract : Policy recommendations: 1. Maintaining and strengthening the European Rare Earth Elements (REE) skills and knowledge base through research funding, science and technology education and international cooperation. Without cutting-edge research and technical expertise, a European high-tech REE industry cannot flourish. The EC and Member States should support funding for research grants, scholarships, and training networks, and enhance European and international cooperation through coordinated calls, researcher exchanges, and joint high-level conferences. 2. Creating the basis for informed decision-making on REEs through a European Critical Materials Observatory. Mapping and monitoring of REE supply chains is necessary for informed decision-making. Expertise in Europe could be pooled in a virtual Critical Materials Observatory that provides the public with consistent and authoritative knowledge on REEs (e.g., information on advanced exploration projects, prices, key demand and supply trends, and the urban mine potential). 3. Support promising technologies through funding industry-led pilot plants for innovative HREE processing. The EC, industry and Member States should accelerate the commercialization and scaling up of key technologies through co-financing industry-led pilot plants. This should include pilots for REE recovery from heavy rare earths-rich minerals, direct-alloy recycling routes, process and sensor equipment for REE recycling, and REE recovery from industrial residues. 4. Levelling the playing field for European HREE exploration through co-funding for prefeasibility and bankable feasibility studies. Support from federal and state governments in the U.S., Australia and Canada has played a critical role in advancing project exploration. The EC and Member States should evaluate possibilities for supporting the extensive R&D necessary for pre-feasibility and bankable feasibility studies, to avoid high quality deposits in Europe simply going unexplored. 5. Making waste management REE-friendly through eco-design, incentive schemes for collecting priority waste products, and streamlining policy and waste regulation. The EC and Member States should promote recycling-friendly design to help identify and recover REE components in waste more easily. Potential incentives for stimulating REE waste collection should be evaluated and the shipment of REE wastes should be facilitated. More consistency should also be created in implementing and applying existing waste regulations. 6. Boost supply security and de-risk strategic REE investment cases through enhanced cooperation among European end-users and other stakeholders. Leading end-users should engage in strategic cooperation across industry and with governments. This could include setting up a voluntary European ‘critical raw materials fund’, establishing a ‘European Resource Alliance’ similar to the German Rohstoffallianz, and convening a high-level taskforce to examine ways in which public funding could support resilient REE supply chains for Europe.
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Submitted on : Thursday, June 29, 2017 - 12:45:05 PM
Last modification on : Friday, April 9, 2021 - 1:56:02 PM
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Salla Ahonen, Nikolaos Arvanitidis, Anton Auer, Emilie Baillet, Nazario Bellato, et al.. STRENGTHENING THE EUROPEAN RARE EARTHS SUPPLY-CHAIN Challenges and policy options A REPORT BY THE EUROPEAN RARE EARTHS COMPETENCY NETWORK (ERECON). [Technical Report] European Commission. 2015. ⟨cea-01550114⟩



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