STRENGTHENING THE EUROPEAN RARE EARTHS SUPPLY-CHAIN Challenges and policy options A REPORT BY THE EUROPEAN RARE EARTHS COMPETENCY NETWORK (ERECON) - Archive ouverte HAL Access content directly
Reports (Technical Report) Year : 2015

STRENGTHENING THE EUROPEAN RARE EARTHS SUPPLY-CHAIN Challenges and policy options A REPORT BY THE EUROPEAN RARE EARTHS COMPETENCY NETWORK (ERECON)

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Salla Ahonen
  • Function : Author
Nikolaos Arvanitidis
  • Function : Author
Anton Auer
  • Function : Author
Emilie Baillet
  • Function : Author
Nazario Bellato
  • Function : Author
Koen Binnemans
  • Function : Author
Gian Andrea Blengini
  • Function : Author
Danilo Bonato
  • Function : Author
Ewa Brouwer
  • Function : Author
Sybolt Brower
  • Function : Author
Matthias Buchert
  • Function : Author
Reinhard Bütikofer
  • Function : Author
Helena Cavaco Viegas
  • Function : Author
Jean-Pierre Cescutti
  • Function : Author
Andrzej Chmielarz
  • Function : Author
Patrice Christmann
  • Function : Author
Claire Claessen
  • Function : Author
Gwenole Cozigou
  • Function : Author
Daniel De Oliveira
  • Function : Author
Eimear Deady
  • Function : Author
Ronny Denis
  • Function : Author
Flor Diaz Pulido
  • Function : Author
Maria Edvardsson
  • Function : Author
Danilo Fontana
  • Function : Author
Christer Forsgren
  • Function : Author
Jean Christophe Gabriel
Roland Gauss
  • Function : Author
Marko Gernuks
  • Function : Author
Alan Gibbon
  • Function : Author
Magnus Gislev
  • Function : Author
James R.J. Goddin
  • Function : Author
Manuel Gomez
  • Function : Author
Mario Gonçalves
  • Function : Author
Kathryn Goodenough
  • Function : Author
Torsten Graupner
  • Function : Author
Milan Grohol
  • Function : Author
Oliver Gutfleisch
  • Function : Author
Jens Gutzmer
  • Function : Author
Horst Hejny
  • Function : Author
Henning Holmstrom
  • Function : Author
Slavomir Hredzak
  • Function : Author
Eeva Jernström
  • Function : Author
Animesh Jha
  • Function : Author
Per Kalvig
  • Function : Author
Roderick Kefferputz
  • Function : Author
David Kennedy
  • Function : Author
Jaakko Kooroshy
  • Function : Author
Floriana La Marca
  • Function : Author
Olivier Larcher
  • Function : Author
Magnus Leijd
  • Function : Author
Herman Lenting
  • Function : Author
Friederike Lindner
  • Function : Author
Elbert Loois
  • Function : Author
Patricia Lopez Vicente
  • Function : Author
Paul Lusty
  • Function : Author
Terence Makanyire
  • Function : Author
Patrice Millet
  • Function : Author
Antonia Morales
  • Function : Author
Zoltan Nemeth
  • Function : Author
Alessandro Ocera
  • Function : Author
Erik Offerman
  • Function : Author
Konstantinos Papavasileiou
  • Function : Author
Ioannis Paspaliaris
  • Function : Author
David Phillip Peck
  • Function : Author
Mattia Pellegrini
  • Function : Author
S Pellet-Rostaing
Urs Peuker
  • Function : Author
Maarten Quix
  • Function : Author
Marja Liisa Räisänen
  • Function : Author
Enrique Redondo
  • Function : Author
Xavier Revest
  • Function : Author
Alain Rollat
  • Function : Author
Justin Salminen
  • Function : Author
Sergio Sanchez-Segad
  • Function : Author
Ilona Santavaara
  • Function : Author
Gerhard Schmidt
  • Function : Author
Richard Sheridan
  • Function : Author
Axel Sjöqvist
  • Function : Author
Slavko Solar
  • Function : Author
Mats Sundgren
  • Function : Author
Colin Tattam
  • Function : Author
Maria Taxiarchou
  • Function : Author
Michael Taylor
  • Function : Author
Guenter Tiess
  • Function : Author
Arnold Tukker
  • Function : Author
Casper van Der Eijk
  • Function : Author
Alexis Van Maercke
  • Function : Author
Janneke Van Veen
  • Function : Author
Silvia Vecchione
  • Function : Author
Karl Vrancken
  • Function : Author
Hong Vu
  • Function : Author
Allan Walton
  • Function : Author
Erik Westin
  • Function : Author
Antje Wittenberg
  • Function : Author
Hermann Wotruba
  • Function : Author
Guozhu Ye
  • Function : Author
Sebastian Zaleski
  • Function : Author

Abstract

Policy recommendations: 1. Maintaining and strengthening the European Rare Earth Elements (REE) skills and knowledge base through research funding, science and technology education and international cooperation. Without cutting-edge research and technical expertise, a European high-tech REE industry cannot flourish. The EC and Member States should support funding for research grants, scholarships, and training networks, and enhance European and international cooperation through coordinated calls, researcher exchanges, and joint high-level conferences. 2. Creating the basis for informed decision-making on REEs through a European Critical Materials Observatory. Mapping and monitoring of REE supply chains is necessary for informed decision-making. Expertise in Europe could be pooled in a virtual Critical Materials Observatory that provides the public with consistent and authoritative knowledge on REEs (e.g., information on advanced exploration projects, prices, key demand and supply trends, and the urban mine potential). 3. Support promising technologies through funding industry-led pilot plants for innovative HREE processing. The EC, industry and Member States should accelerate the commercialization and scaling up of key technologies through co-financing industry-led pilot plants. This should include pilots for REE recovery from heavy rare earths-rich minerals, direct-alloy recycling routes, process and sensor equipment for REE recycling, and REE recovery from industrial residues. 4. Levelling the playing field for European HREE exploration through co-funding for prefeasibility and bankable feasibility studies. Support from federal and state governments in the U.S., Australia and Canada has played a critical role in advancing project exploration. The EC and Member States should evaluate possibilities for supporting the extensive R&D necessary for pre-feasibility and bankable feasibility studies, to avoid high quality deposits in Europe simply going unexplored. 5. Making waste management REE-friendly through eco-design, incentive schemes for collecting priority waste products, and streamlining policy and waste regulation. The EC and Member States should promote recycling-friendly design to help identify and recover REE components in waste more easily. Potential incentives for stimulating REE waste collection should be evaluated and the shipment of REE wastes should be facilitated. More consistency should also be created in implementing and applying existing waste regulations. 6. Boost supply security and de-risk strategic REE investment cases through enhanced cooperation among European end-users and other stakeholders. Leading end-users should engage in strategic cooperation across industry and with governments. This could include setting up a voluntary European ‘critical raw materials fund’, establishing a ‘European Resource Alliance’ similar to the German Rohstoffallianz, and convening a high-level taskforce to examine ways in which public funding could support resilient REE supply chains for Europe.
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cea-01550114 , version 1 (29-06-2017)

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  • HAL Id : cea-01550114 , version 1

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Salla Ahonen, Nikolaos Arvanitidis, Anton Auer, Emilie Baillet, Nazario Bellato, et al.. STRENGTHENING THE EUROPEAN RARE EARTHS SUPPLY-CHAIN Challenges and policy options A REPORT BY THE EUROPEAN RARE EARTHS COMPETENCY NETWORK (ERECON). [Technical Report] European Commission. 2015. ⟨cea-01550114⟩

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