Evaporation condensation-induced bubble motion after temperature gradient set-up

Abstract : Thermocapillary (Marangoni) motion of a gas bubble (or a liquid drop) under a temperature gradient can hardly be present in a one-component fluid. Indeed, in such a pure system, the vapor–liquid interface is always isothermal (at saturation temperature). However, evaporation on the hot side and condensation on the cold side can occur and displace the bubble. We have observed such a phenomenon in two different fluids submitted to a temperature gradient under reduced gravity: hydrogen under magnetic compensation of gravity in the HYLDE facility at CEA-Grenoble and water in the DECLIC facility onboard the ISS. The experiments and the subsequent analysis are performed in the vicinity of the vapor–liquid critical point to benefit from critical universality. In order to better understand the phenomena, a 1D numerical simulation has been performed. After the temperature gradient is imposed, two regimes can be evidenced. At early times, the temperatures in the bubble and the surrounding liquid become different thanks to their different compressibility and the " piston effect " mechanism, i.e. the fast adiabatic bulk thermalization induced by the expansion of the thermal boundary layers. The difference in local temperature gradients at the vapor–liquid interface results in an unbalanced evaporation/condensation phenomenon that makes the shape of the bubble vary and provoke its motion. At long times, a steady temperature gradient progressively forms in the liquid (but not in the bubble) and induces steady bubble motion towards the hot end. We evaluate the bubble velocity and compare with existing theories.
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Vadim S. Nikolayev, Yves Garrabos, Carole Lecoutre, Guillaume Pichavant, Denis Chatain, et al.. Evaporation condensation-induced bubble motion after temperature gradient set-up. Comptes Rendus Mécanique, Elsevier Masson, 2017, 345, pp.35-46. ⟨10.1016/j.crme.2016.10.002⟩. ⟨cea-01485391⟩

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