Core-shell amorphous silicon-carbon nanoparticles for high performance anodes in lithium ion batteries

Abstract : Amorphous Si@C core-shell nano-particles are formed by double-stage laser pyrolysis. Maximum lithiation of amorphous Si@C composite is achieved in the first cycle. High coulombic efficiency of 99.95% is obtained after 550 cycles. Post-mortem analysis highlights the withstanding of the composite upon cycling. a b s t r a c t Core-shell silicon-carbon nanoparticles are attractive candidates as active material to increase the capacity of Li-ion batteries while mitigating the detrimental effects of volume expansion upon lithiation. However crystalline silicon suffers from amorphization upon the first charge/discharge cycle and improved stability is expected in starting with amorphous silicon. Here we report the synthesis, in a single-step process, of amorphous silicon nanoparticles coated with a carbon shell (a-Si@C), via a two-stage laser pyrolysis where decomposition of silane and ethylene are conducted in two successive reaction zones. Control of experimental conditions mitigates silicon core crystallization as well as formation of silicon carbide. Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy show a carbon shell about 1 nm in thickness, which prevents detrimental oxidation of the a-Si cores. Cyclic voltammetry demonstrates that the core-shell composite reaches its maximal lithiation during the first sweep, thanks to its amorphous core. After 500 charge/discharge cycles, it retains a capacity of 1250 mAh.g À1 at a C/5 rate and 800 mAh.g À1 at 2C, with an outstanding coulombic efficiency of 99.95%. Moreover, post-mortem observations show an electrode volume expansion of less than 20% and preservation of the nanostructuration.
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https://hal-cea.archives-ouvertes.fr/cea-01355645
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Submitted on : Tuesday, August 23, 2016 - 7:33:18 PM
Last modification on : Thursday, September 12, 2019 - 2:06:26 PM

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Julien Sourice, Arnaud Bordes, Adrien Boulineau, John P. Alper, Sylvain Franger, et al.. Core-shell amorphous silicon-carbon nanoparticles for high performance anodes in lithium ion batteries. Journal of Power Sources, Elsevier, 2016, 328, pp.527-535. ⟨10.1016/j.jpowsour.2016.08.057⟩. ⟨cea-01355645⟩

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