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Direct and co-catalytic oxidative aromatization of 1,4-dihydropyridines and related substrates using gold nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes

Abstract : A heterogeneous catalyst was assembled by stabilization of gold nanoparticles on carbon nanotubes. The resulting nanohybrid was used in the catalytic aerobic oxidation of 1,4-dihydropyridines. The system proved very efficient on the investigated substrates either directly or in the presence of a quinone co-catalyst. Pyridines have found applications in various domains such as in the synthesis of drugs, 1 herbicides, 2 or insecticides. 3 In addition, the pyridine scaffold plays a central role in living systems since nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD + / NADH) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP + /NADPH) are key pyridine-incorporating co-factors involved in oxido-reduction processes. 4 Among the various methods developed for the synthesis of pyridine derivatives, 5 the oxidation of Hantzsch 1,4-dihydropyridines is likely one of the most straightforward approaches. The Hantzsch pyridine synthesis is a multi-component process which involves an aldehyde, two equivalents of a β-keto ester, and a nitrogen atom source. The initial condensation affords a dihydro-pyridine intermediate which can be oxidized, in a second step, into the corresponding pyridine. This reaction was reported for the first time in 1881 by Arthur Hantzsch. 6 Numerous reagents have been reported to promote the second step-oxidative aromatization reaction and include, for example , copper bromide, 7 ferric chloride, 8 palladium on carbon, 9 manganese dioxide, 10 and tert-butylhydroperoxide. 11 However, the oxidation of dihydropyridines is not always easy when substrates bear sensitive functional groups and there is still the quest for mild and general protocols. Also, some of the reported procedures lead to the formation of by-products which can be difficult to remove from the reaction mixture. Therefore, the development of milder, sustainable, and more effective methods for the oxidative aromatization of 1,4-dihydropyridines is sound. In the present article, we report the assembly and use of a recyclable CNT-supported gold catalyst for the selective and mild aerobic oxidation of 1,4-dihydropyridines (DHPs) and related substrates (Fig. 1). The CNT-gold catalyst was assembled using a layer-by-layer approach according to a previously reported procedure Fig. 1 Overview of the catalytic assembly and catalyzed oxidation process studied in the present work.
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Submitted on : Monday, August 22, 2016 - 7:05:56 PM
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Praveen Prakash, Edmond Gravel, Haiyan Li, Frédéric Miserque, Aurélie Habert, et al.. Direct and co-catalytic oxidative aromatization of 1,4-dihydropyridines and related substrates using gold nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes. Catalysis Science & Technology, Royal Society of Chemistry, 2016, 6 (17), pp.6476-6479. ⟨10.1039/c6cy00453a⟩. ⟨cea-01355281⟩



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