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A unifying description of dark energy

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Abstract

We review and extend a novel approach that we introduced recently, to describe general dark energy or scalar-tensor models. Our approach relies on an ADM formulation based on the hypersurfaces where the underlying scalar field is uniform. The advantage of this approach is that it can describe in the same language and in a minimal way a vast number of existing models, such as quintessence models, $F(R)$ theories, scalar tensor theories, their Horndeski extensions and beyond. It also naturally includes Horava-Lifshitz theories. As summarized in this review, our approach provides a unified treatment of the linear cosmological perturbations about a FLRW universe, obtained by a systematic expansion of our general action up to quadratic order. This shows that the behaviour of these linear perturbations is generically characterized by five time-dependent functions. We derive the full equations of motion in the Newtonian gauge, and obtain in particular the equation of state for dark energy perturbations, in the Horndeski case, in terms of these functions. Our unifying description thus provides the simplest and most systematic way to confront theoretical models with current and future cosmological observations.

Dates and versions

cea-01223706 , version 1 (03-11-2015)

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Jérôme Gleyzes, David Langlois, Filippo Vernizzi. A unifying description of dark energy. 2015. ⟨cea-01223706⟩
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