Design and RF measurements of a 5 GHz 500 kW window for the ITER LHCD system

Abstract : CEA/IRFM is conducting R&D efforts in order to validate the critical RF components of the 5 GHz ITER LHCD system, which is expected to transmit 20 MW of RF power to the plasma. Two 5 GHz 500 kW BeO pill-box type window prototypes have been manufactured in 2012 by the PMB Company, in close collaboration with CEA/IRFM. Both windows have been validated at low power, showing good agreement between measured and modeling, with a return loss better than 32 dB and an insertion loss below 0.05 dB. This paper reports on the window RF design and the low power measurements. The high power tests up to 500kW have been carried out in March 2013 in collaboration with NFRI. Results of these tests are also reported. In the current ITER LHCD design, 20 MW Continuous Wave (CW) of Radio-Frequency power at 5 GHz are expected to be generated and transmitted to the plasma. In order to separate the vacuum vessel pressure from the cryostat waveguide pressure, forty eight 5 GHz 500kW CW windows are to be assembled on the waveguides at the equatorial port flange. For nuclear safety reasons, forty eight additional windows could be located in the cryostat section, to separate and monitor the cryostat waveguide pressure from the exterior transmission line pressure. These windows are identified as being one of the main critical components for the ITER LHCD system since first ITER LHCD studies [1] [2] [3] or more recently [4] [5] , and clearly require an important R&D effort. In this context and even if the LHCD system is not part of the construction baseline, the CEA/IRFM is conducting a R&D effort in order to validate a design and the performances of these RF windows. In order to begin the assessment of this need, two 5 GHz 500 kW/5 s pill-box type windows prototypes have been manufactured in 2012 by the PMB Company in close collaboration with the CEA/IRFM [6]. The section 2 of this paper reports the RF and mechanical design of a 5 GHz window. Some features of the mechanical design and the experimental RF measurements at low power are reported in section 3. High power results, made in collaboration with NFRI, are detailed in section 4. The development of CW windows is discussed in the conclusion. 2-RF AND MECHANICAL DESIGN The proposed 5 GHz RF window is based on a pill-box design [2] , i.e. a ceramic brazed in portion of a circular waveguide, connected on either side to a rectangular waveguide section. Typical design rules of thumb of such device are circular section diameter about the same size of the diagonal of the rectangular waveguide (cf. FIGURE 1). Without taking into account the ceramic, the circular section length is approximately half a guided wavelength of the circular TE 11 mode, in order for the device to act as a half-wave transformer. Once optimized, taking into account the ceramic, matching is correct only for a narrow band of frequency and is very sensitive to the device dimensions and the ceramic relative permittivity. The heat losses in the ceramic, which have to be extracted by an active water cooling, depends on the inside electric field topology and of ceramic dielectric loss (loss tangent). Undesirable modes due to parasitic resonances can be excited in the ceramic volume, raising the electric field and
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Julien Hillairet, J Achard, N Dechambre, L Delpech, A Ekedahl, et al.. Design and RF measurements of a 5 GHz 500 kW window for the ITER LHCD system. 20th Topical Conference on Radio Frequency Power in Plasmas, Jun 2013, Sorrento, Italy. ⟨10.1063/1.4864591⟩. ⟨cea-01132534⟩

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