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Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome

Manimozhiyan Arumugam 1 Jeroen Raes 1 Eric Pelletier 2 Denis Le Paslier 2 Takuji Yamada 1 Daniel R. Mende 1 Gabriel R. Fernandes 1 Julien Tap 1 Thomas Bruls 2 Jean-Michel Batto Marcelo Bertalan 3 Natalia Borruel 4 Francesc Casellas 4 Leyden Fernandez 5 Laurent Gautier 6 Torben Hansen 7, 8 Masahira Hattori Tetsuya Hayashi Michiel Kleerebezem 9 Ken Kurokawa Marion Leclerc 10 Florence Levenez Chaysavanh Manichanh H. Bjørn Nielsen Trine Nielsen 8 Nicolas Pons Julie Poulain 2 Junjie Qin Thomas Sicheritz-Ponten Sebastian Tims David Torrents 5 Edgardo Ugarte 11 Erwin G. Zoetendal Jun Wang 12 Francisco Guarner 13 Oluf Pedersen 7 Willem M. de Vos 14 Søren Brunak 3 Joel Doré 15 Jean Weissenbach 2 S. Dusko Ehrlich * Peer Bork 1, * François Artiguenave 2, 11 Raquel Melo Minardi 2 
Abstract : Our knowledge of species and functional composition of the human gut microbiome is rapidly increasing, but it is still based on very few cohorts and little is known about variation across the world. By combining 22 newly sequenced faecal metagenomes of individuals from four countries with previously published data sets, here we identify three robust clusters (referred to as enterotypes hereafter) that are not nation or continent specific. We also confirmed the enterotypes in two published, larger cohorts, indicating that intestinal microbiota variation is generally stratified, not continuous. This indicates further the existence of a limited number of well-balanced host-microbial symbiotic states that might respond differently to diet and drug intake. The enterotypes are mostly driven by species composition, but abundant molecular functions are not necessarily provided by abundant species, highlighting the importance of a functional analysis to understand microbial communities. Although individual host properties such as body mass index, age, or gender cannot explain the observed enterotypes, data-driven marker genes or functional modules can be identified for each of these host properties. For example, twelve genes significantly correlate with age and three functional modules with the body mass index, hinting at a diagnostic potential of microbial markers
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Submitted on : Tuesday, November 12, 2013 - 3:56:06 PM
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Manimozhiyan Arumugam, Jeroen Raes, Eric Pelletier, Denis Le Paslier, Takuji Yamada, et al.. Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome. Nature, Nature Publishing Group, 2011, 473 (7346), pp.174-180. ⟨10.1038/nature09944⟩. ⟨cea-00903625⟩



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