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Convection and Differential Rotation in F-Type Stars

Abstract : Differential rotation is a common feature of main-sequence spectral F-type stars. In seeking to make contact with observations and to provide a self-consistent picture of how differential rotation is achieved in the interiors of these stars, we use the three-dimensional anelastic spherical harmonic (ASH) code to simulate global-scale turbulent flows in 1.2 and 1.3 $M_\odot$ F-type stars at varying rotation rates. The simulations are carried out in spherical shells that encompass most of the convection zone and a portion of the stably stratified radiative zone below it, allowing us to explore the effects of overshooting convection. We examine the scaling of the mean flows and thermal state with rotation rate and mass and link these scalings to fundamental parameters of the simulations. Indeed, we find that the differential rotation becomes much stronger with more rapid rotation and larger mass, scaling as $\Delta\Omega$ $\alpha$ $M^{3.9}$$\Omega_0^{0.6}$. Accompanying the growing differential rotation is a significant latitudinal temperature contrast, with amplitudes of 1000 K or higher in the most rapidly rotating cases. This contrast in turn scales with mass and rotation rate as $\Delta$$T$ $\alpha$ $M^{6.4}$$\Omega_0^{1.6}$. On the other hand, the meridional circulations become much weaker with more rapid rotation and with higher mass, with their kinetic energy decreasing as KE$_{MC}$ $\alpha$ $M^{-1.2}$$\Omega_0^{-0.8}$. Additionally, three of our simulations exhibit a global-scale shear instability within their stable regions that persists for the duration of the simulations. The flow structures associated with the instabilities have a direct coupling to and impact on the flows within the convection zone.
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K.C. Augustson, Benjamin P. Brown, A.S. Brun, Mark S. Miesch, Juri Toomre. Convection and Differential Rotation in F-Type Stars. The Astrophysical Journal, American Astronomical Society, 2013, 756 (2), pp.169. ⟨10.1088/0004-637X/756/2/169⟩. ⟨cea-00827752⟩



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