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High voltage spinel oxides for Li-ion batteries: From the material research to the application

Abstract : Li-ion batteries are already used in many nomad applications, but improvement of this technology is still necessary to be durably introduced on new markets such as electric vehicles (EVs), hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) or eventually photovoltaic solar cells. Modification of the nature of the active materials of electrodes is the most challenging and innovative aspect. High voltage spinel oxides for Li-ion batteries, with general composition LiMn2−xMxO4 (M a transition metal element), may be used to face increasing power source demand. It should be possible to obtain up to 240 Wh kg−1 at cell level when combining a nickel manganese spinel oxide with graphite (even more with silicon/carbon nanocomposites at the anode). Specific composition and material processing have to be selected with care, as discussed in this paper. It is demonstrated that ‘LiNi0.5Mn1.5O4' and LiNi0.4Mn1.6O4 have remarkable properties such as high potential, high energy density, good cycle life and high rate capability. Choice of the electrolyte is also of primary importance in order to prevent its degradation at high voltage in contact with active surfaces. We showed that a few percents of additive in the electrolyte were suitable for protecting the positive electrode/electrolyte interface, and reducing the self-discharge. High voltage materials are also possibly interesting to be used in safe and high power Li-ion cells. In this case, the negative electrode may be made of Li4Ti5O12 or TiO2 to give a ‘3 V' system.
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Submitted on : Thursday, September 3, 2009 - 11:07:52 AM
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Sébastien Patoux, Lise Daniel, Carole Bourbon, Carole Pagano, Hélène Lignier, et al.. High voltage spinel oxides for Li-ion batteries: From the material research to the application. Journal of Power Sources, Elsevier, 2008, 189 (1), pp.344-352. ⟨10.1016/j.jpowsour.2008.08.043⟩. ⟨cea-00413089⟩



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