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[hal-02309051] Gravitational phase transitions and instabilities of self-gravitating fermions in general relativity

(21/07/2022)  
We discuss the occurrence of gravitational phase transitions and instabilities in a gas of self-gravitating fermions within the framework of general relativity. In the classical (nondegenerate) limit, the system undergoes a gravitational collapse at low energies E<Ec and low temperatures T<Tc . This is called “gravothermal catastrophe” in the microcanonical ensemble and “isothermal collapse” in the canonical ensemble. When quantum mechanics is taken into account and when the particle number is below the Oppenheimer-Volkoff limit ( N<NOV ), complete gravitational collapse is prevented by the Pauli exclusion principle. In that case, the Fermi gas undergoes a gravitational phase transition from a gaseous phase to a condensed phase. The condensed phase represents a compact object like a white dwarf, a neutron star, or a dark matter fermion ball. When N>NOV , there can be a subsequent gravitational collapse below a lower critical energy E<Ec″ or a lower critical temperature T<Tc′ leading presumably to the formation of a black hole. The evolution of the system is different in the microcanonical and canonical ensembles. In the microcanonical ensemble, the system takes a “core-halo” structure. The core consists in a compact quantum object or a black hole while the hot halo is expelled at large distances. This is reminiscent of the red giant structure of low-mass stars or the implosion-explosion of massive stars (supernova). In the canonical ensemble, the system collapses as a whole towards a compact object or a black hole. This is reminiscent of the implosion of supermassive stars (hypernova).

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Marcheur aléatoire Statistical mechanics Computational modelling Galaxies nuclei Metastable states Gravitation collapse Scalar field Wave function Hydrodynamics Dark matter condensation Random walker Interacting agents Phase separation Atmosphere Einstein 9530Sf Turbulence Fermion model Competition Stability Entropy Klein-Gordon equation AGN Nonlinear Dark matter fuzzy Collisionless stellar-systems Game theory Kinetic theory Gravitation self-force DNA Pressure Energy density Cosmology Cosmological model Critical phenomena Structure Mass density Black hole Glass transition Catastrophe theory Nanofiltration Gas Chaplygin Smoluchowski equation Generalized thermodynamics 9880-k Axion star Chemotaxie Density Membrane transport Dark matter density Mouvement brownien Chemotaxis Galaxies kinematics and dynamics Energy internal Formation Dark matter halo 9862Gq Ions close to interfaces Bethe ansatz Expansion acceleration Nonrelativistic Brownian motion Field theory scalar Fermi gas General relativity Diffusion 9536+x Bose–Einstein condensates Keller-Segel Collective motion Collapse Evaporation Field theory scalar complex Long-range interactions Axion Thermodynamics Smoluchowski-Poisson Rotation 9535+d Effondrement gravitationnel Denaturation Euler-Maclaurin Galaxy Fermion dark matter Condensation Bose-Einstein TASEP Equation of state Dark energy Fokker-Planck Gravitation Asymptotic behavior Finite temperature Energy high Quantum chromodynamics axion Gravitational collapse Dark matter Dissipation Numerical calculations Gas Cosmological constant